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Pengujian SEM dilakukan untuk mengetahui morfologi material setelah proses hidrotermal. Pengujian BET dilakukan untuk mengetahui surface area. Setelah itu metode acid treatment dilakukan untuk proses adsorpsi dan desorpsi. Pengujian ICP dilakukan untuk mengetahui kandungan lithium yang terdapat pada Lumpur Sidoarjo sebelum dan sesudah adsorpsi untuk mengetahui jumlah lithium yang terserap.
Dari hasil uji SEM terlihat bahwa tidak banyak perbedaan morfologi pada ketiga variasi. Partikel cenderung membentuk aglomerasi. Pada hasil uji ICP menunjukkan bahwa LiMn2O4 dengan temperatur hidrotermal oC memiliki efisiensi adsorpsi paling tinggi dengan 6, ppm.
Sementara untuk desorpsi yang paling tinggi adalah oC sebesar 0. Synthesis and evaluation of ceramic materials for its application in fuel cells in solid state; Sintesis y evaluacion de materiales ceramicos para su aplicacion en celdas de combustible en estado solido. The mecano- sintesis of lanthanum powder manganites is proposed as a method to maximize the defects, since punctual defects in these materials for applications of cathodes in fuel cells are required.
Intrinsic precise defects were introduced in the lanthanum manganite mixing lanthanum oxide with manganese oxide with different numbers of oxidation. A comparison between the final structural properties of the manganites obtained by different processes is presented: a high energy milling in one pass in a SPEX and thermal treatment, b milling in two passes by milling of high energy in a SPEXD and thermal treatment and c by thermal activation.
A study is presented of the main variables that take part in the mecanosintesis technique, as the volumetric relations between the powders and balls, etc. Experiments of pre-consolidation of synthesized powders took place using vegetal starches of native maize, potatoes, wheat and waxy wheat. The best results were obtained with native maize starch considering the distribution of open micro porosity without losing the shape of the test tubes presented. The test tubes in green were sintered at , and degrees Celsius.
The largest grain size was obtained in samples processed to degrees Celsius and a greater open porosity at degrees Celsius. Full Text Available Eco-friendly synthesis of imine derivative compound from 2-hydroxy acetophenone and vanillin had been conducted by using a method of stirring with stirrer in a water solvent. The whole experiment began with the synthesis of imine compounds, followed by purification and characterization of the synthesis products and finally analysis on their biological and antioxidant activities.
The experiments showed that imine compounds could be synthesized by a chemical reaction of 4-amino antipirin aqueous solution with 2-hydroxy acetophenone and vanillin at magnetic stirrer speed of and rpm, respectively, which produced product A, E 1- 2-hydroxyphenyl ethylideneamino-1,5-dimethylphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3 2H-one and product B, E 4-hydroxy vinyloxy benzylideneamino-1,5-dimethylphenyl-1H-pyrazol-3 2H-one.
Toxicity and antioxidant activity tests showed that the product B were toxic and more active as an antioxidant than product A. While the antibacterial activity test showed that both products had a response to Staphyllococcus aureus bacteria and Escherechia coli bacteria. Crucible-Free Synthesis of Silicides and Borides; Synthese de siliciures et de borures sans creuset; Bestigel'nyj sintez silitsidov i boridov; Sintesis de siliciuros y boruros sin crisol. The laboratory method for preparing pure silicides and borides, reducing the corresponding oxides of metals, has been developed.
Synthesis of silicides was carried out in the floating zone of molten silicon. The floating zone was obtained by means of electron bombardment. Synthesis of borides is similar but reactions are generally of the solid-solid type. Initial heating of the reaction mixture was also obtained by means of the electron beam but further heating was produced by the ionized gaseous products of the reaction. La synthese des siliciures a pu etre faite dans la ''zone flottante'' du silicium fondu. Cette zone flottante a ete obtenue par bombardement electronique.
La synthese des borures est analogue, mais les reactions ont lieu generalement a Tetat solide. Le chauffage initial du melange reactionnel a egalement ete obtenu pai bombardement electronique, mais le chauffage ulterieur etait assure par les electrons diffuses des produits ionises gazeux de la reaction. La sintesis de los siliciuros se llevo a cabo en la zona flotante del silicio fundido. Esa zona se obtuvo por bombardeo electronico. La sintesis de los boruros se llevo a cabo de manera similar, pero generalmente las reacciones son del tipo solido-solido.
El calentamiento inicial de la mezcla se efectuo tambien mediante un haz electronico, pero el calentamiento ulterior es producido por la dispersion electronica en los productos de reaccion ionizados en estado gaseoso. Sintez, silitsidov provodili v plavayushchej zone.
Godinez-Garcia, A. Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro Mexico ]. E-mail: jperez qro. The synthesis and characterization of nanocatalysts for fuel cells has been a primary line of research for the purpose of obtaining less expensive electrocatalysts with better activity. A large variety of methods exist to synthesize useful nanoparticles as electrocatalysts. Each method generates particles with a different surface morphology and, therefore, the catalytic activity usually varies depending on which is used in the synthesis.
The study of this technique is of interest because it produces highly dispersed carbon-supported nanoparticles with very clean surfaces. Each electrocatalyst was evaluated for its oxygen reduction reaction ORR in acid medium with cyclic voltamperometry CV and rotating disc electrode RDE. The electrocatalyst was characterized with x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy TEM. The physical characterization reveals that the electrocatalyst is composed of nanometric bimetallic aggregates.
Existen una gran variedad de metodos para sintetizar nanoparticulas utiles como electrocatalizadores, cada metodo genera particulas con una morfologia superficial diferente por lo que la actividad catalitica suele variar dependiendo de cual se utilice en la sintesis. Ferric chloride was used as coagulant and dodecil sulfate as collector, and arsenic trioxide was utilized to preparing the solutions.
The obtained results show that the highest arsenic removal was accomplished in the range of pH between 4 and 5,5, and the increasing of the initial concentration of Fe III, increases the removal of arsenic from the solution. Compositions of thermoplastic starch TPS reinforced by high surface area materials were produced, intending to study the variation in polymer properties, focusing on the permeability to water vapor. Colloidal silica surface area The results demonstrated that the addition of both materials was favorable to the TPS mechanical properties, however in higher loadings the quality of polymer interfaces and these properties were negatively affected, especially for ZSM Synthesis and electrochemical characterization of palladium-based cathode catalysts, resistant to the presence of methanol; Sintesis y caracterizacion electroquimica de catalizadores catodicos base paladio, resistentes a la presencia de metanol.
Salvador, Jose J. Mexico ] e-mail: jsalvador cinvestav. This work presents the synthesis and characterization of palladium-based electrocatalysts PdSn and PdPtSn prepared with the salt-reduction method for oxygen reduction reaction ORR. The compounds obtained are characterized by sweep electron microscopy, electron transmission microscopy and x-ray diffraction of powder. The electrocatalysts obtained had particle sizes less than 10 nm. The evaluation of the catalytic activity of the catalysts was performed using cyclic voltametry and rotating disc electrode.
The presence of methanol improved the catalytic activity of PdSn, but did not show any effect on the PdPtSn alloy. Los compuestos obtenidos se caracterizaron por microscopia electronica de barrido, microscopia electronica de transmision y difraccion de rayos X de polvos. Los electrocatalizadores obtenidos presentaron un tamano de particula menores a 10 nm. La presencia de metanol mejoro la actividad catalitica de PdSn, pero no mostro ningun efecto sobre la aleacion PdPtSn.
Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing; Processamento coloidal de cromito de lantanio. The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries.
Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage.
The influence of parameters: p H water , dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. Synthesis and characterization of PdAg as a catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in acid medium; Sintesis y caracterizacion de PdAg como catalizador para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno en medio acido.
Martinez-Casillas, D. Mexico ]. E-mail: dcmartinez cinvestav. This work presents the synthesis of the binary compound PdAg and the electrochemical characterization for oxygen reduction reaction ORR in acid medium. The electrochemical current-potential responses were compared to those of palladium and platinum. The kinetic results showed an increase in the performance of the bimetallic electrocatalyst containing Ag as compared to pure Pd, but less than that obtained with nanometric Pt.
The Tafel slopes obtained are roughly mV dec-1, similar to that reported for Pt and Pd and for other Ru-based electrocatalysts. Se realizaron estudios electroquimicos para determinar la actividad catalitica y las propiedades intrinsecas del material de PdAg para la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno RRO en medio acido, utilizando las tecnicas de voltamperometria ciclica VC , electrodo disco rotatorio EDR y espectroscopia de impedancia electroquimica EIE , en.
Synthesis and characterization of cobalt oxide and titanium mixtures using mechanical alloying and its response to oxygen reduction; Sintesis y caracterizacion de mezclas de oxidos de cobalto y titanio por aleado mecanico y su respuesta para la reduccion de oxigeno.
Basurto S, R. E-mail: rafael. The material obtained after alloying underwent combustion at degrees Celsius and degrees Celsius, obtaining oxides of mixed cobalt valence. Characterization was performed using x-ray diffraction, low-vacuum sweep electron microscopy and EDS.
The electrochemical performance was obtained in a galvanostat-potentiostat Princenton Applied Research modelo Both materials present electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium. Full Text Available Public Health Genomics PHG has been defined as the responsible and effective translation of genome-based knowledge for the benefit of population health Bellagio workshop, April As such, GENISAP members elaborated the present document to describe the state of the art of PHG in Italy, in order to encourage the generation of evidence-based knowledge on genetic testing especially for common complex disorders.
Synthesis of a red pigment from gold nanoparticles; Sintesis de un pigmento rojo a partir de nanopartIculas de oro. A simple method of synthesising red pigments for ceramic glazes, based on gold nanoparticles protected by a refractory oxide capsule, was developed. Gold nanoparticles of an appropriate size were obtained by reaction in an aqueous medium between an Au III solution and an ammonium bromide solution, keeping the Br- concentration low during the process.
The gold nanoparticles were encapsulated by adding the protective oxide in colloid form and subsequently coagulating it, alkalinising the medium. Diethylen triamine was then added to encourage the interaction between the gold nanoparticles and the oxide nanoparticles. This was followed by adding carboxymethylcellulose to raise medium viscosity, and to avoid segregation and subsequent agglomeration of the gold nanoparticles during drying. The dry residue was directly usable as a glaze pigment without requiring further thermal treatments.
In the three cases, pigments with a high colouring strength were obtained, which gave rise to reds of different shades in the resulting test glaze. The yield value was The melting point range was Environmentally friendly synthesis of reducing super-heavy oil viscosity; Sintesis amigable con el ambiente de reductores de viscosidad para petroleos Super-pesados.
E-mail: lcastros ipn. E-mail: eaflores imp. E-mail: arte hotmail. E-mail: fvmoreno imp. There are certain polymers that have the character to be flow modifiers, and this emerges of the chemical structure and molecular interaction that the polymers have with the crude oil. Three polymers were prepared by emulsion polymerization were characterized, they were characterized by Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectroscopy and Size exclusion Size exclusion chromatography SEC.
To assess its implementation, the polymers were evaluated in heavy crude oils with rotational tests. The polymer concentration was evaluated at ppm, and it presented an appreciable reduction of viscosity in heavy crude oil. Se sintetizaron tres polimeros a traves de la tecnica de polimerizacion en emulsion, los polimeros fueron caracterizados por Espectroscopia Infrarroja con transformada de Fourier FTIR , tambien se utilizo la tecnica de Cromatografia por Exclusion de Tamanos SEC.
Para valorar su aplicacion, se evaluaron en aceites crudos pesados con pruebas rotacionales. La concentracion de los polimeros se valuo en ppm, y se aprecio un notable abatimiento de la viscosidad del aceite crudo pesado. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques; Sintesis y caracterizacion de fibras de carbono obtenidas mediante tecnicas de plasma. The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials.
It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon.
The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current CA to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts.
For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy TEM , scanning electron microscopy SEM and X-ray diffraction XRD , analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon.
Performance test of the biodiesel product showed that mixture of biodiesel and diesel in the ratio produced the results of cleanest exhaust gas emissions and longest time of its burning. Full Text Available This study were aimed to determine the correlation between concentration of purine derivatives PD in spot sample with PD total excretion in Bligon and Kejobong goats and determine the appropriate sampling time, in order to predicting microbial protein synthesis in both breeds.
Six male Bligon goats and six male Kejobong goats with age range from 8 to 14 months and body weight from 16 to 21 kg were placed in metabolism cages. Peanut straw and water were given to both groups of goats through ad libitum feeding and drinking. The study was done in 14 days for adaptation, 3 days for collection.
Sample of feeds, feed residues, and feces were collected and then analyzed to determine dry matter and organic matter content. Spot urine and the total daily urine samples were also collected. Samples collection of spot sampling technique was run by taking the urine periodically with 3 hours intervals at 24 hours. Urine samples were analyzed for the content of creatinine and PD which includes allantoin, uric acid, xanthine, and hypoxanthine. Data were tested for the correlation between concentration of PD spot urine sample with total PD daily excretion.
Based on this study also known that the best time for spot sampling to determine the total excretion of PD in Bligon was in the range. Testing Testing Testing. Articles in this special section consider 1 flow in test taking Craig Deville ; 2 testwiseness Thomas O'Neill ; 3 test length Benjamin Wright ; 4 cross-language test equating Richard W. Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo A. This work describes the synthesis of 1-N-aminoindol derivatives in organic anhydrous media from 1, 4-dihydrocinnoline.
The cinnoline ring contraction products are obtained in low yield, but they show the possibility to carry out the reaction in organic media without water addition, as it was noted in previous works. Esta se obtiene mediante la electrolisis de la 2- orto-notrofenil -etilamina 1a en celda redox de flujo continuo.
Los productos de contraccion del ciclo de la cinolina en 1-N-aminoindol se obtiene en rendimiento bajo, pero demuestran la posibilidad de llevar a cabo esta reaccion en medios totalmente organicos, sin la necesidad de la adicion de agua en el medio de reaccion, como esta descrito en trabajos precedentes.
Synthesis of Hydroxynaphtharines; Sintesis de naftazarinas hidroxiladas. Farina, F. A variety of naththazarines type 4 and 8 were prepared through Diels-Alder reactions of substituted 1,4-benzoquinones with 1,3-dienes. Hydroxynaphthazarines of type 8 were synthesized from 5 through 2,3-epoxides of the type The structural study of the products, by H-NMR, showed the typical tautomerism of the naphthazarine system. Hutan mampu menghasilkan dan mengumpulkan energi setiap tahunnya Lehninger, ; Whittaker, Proses pembentukan energi diawali dengan pengubahan energi dari cahaya matahari menjadi energi kimia dalam bentuk ikatan kimia yang stabil melalui proses fotosintesis.
Banyak orang menganggap agregat berguna tersebut sebagai ikatan kimia kayu yang stabil. Smith, C. Los autores emplearon el metodo de la microautorradiografia con timidina tritiada, que les permitio evaluar la velocidad de sintesis en los cultivos de una sola capa que utilizaron.
Los resultados indican que: 1 La fraccion de celulas que sintetizan ADN en un cultivo no es alterada por las particulas a. El resultado 4 permite calcular aproximadamente la forma del blanco. Los resultados concuerdan con la. The reduction of organic component content, of molybdenum and coloidal silica in chlorosodium uraniferous eluates. In this paper, the experimental results obtained at a laboratory facility for molybdenum, silica and organic substances removal from sodium chloride uraniferous eluate solutions are presented.
The aim of this study is to obtain uranium yellow cakes having product quality specification, in order to enable their conversion in nuclear grade uranium dioxide. The chemical characterization of uranium concentrate obtained from the refined eluate is presented.
Synthesized report; FEBEX: experimento de barreras de ingenieria a gran escala en rocas cristalinas: etapa preoperacional. Informe de sintesis. In addition to the EC, seven partners from three countries of the EU. The project consists of two large-scale tests and a series of complimentary laboratory tests. This report includes a synthesized description of the experiment from its conception through the installation of the two large-scale tests from the middle of to the beginning of , preoperation stage.
The experiment is described in detail in a series of specific reports. Bianchi, P. Midiendo a continuacion, con ayuda de un contador de flujo, la actividad de celulas enteras, lavadas y homogeneizadas, se han obtenido valores numericos que concuerdan con los resultados de la determinacion autorradiografica.
Parece pues que, en este caso particular, la utilizacion de autorradiografias para medir la sintesis del acido desoxirribonucleico es susceptible de critica. Basandose en estos datos, es posible dividir el proceso sintetico en varias fases: 1 Incorporacion inicial de timidina en la celula; 2 Fosforilacion consecutiva, en dos etapas por lo menos; 3 Polimerizacion de la timidina fosforilada, con formacion de acido desoxirribonucleico. Por consiguiente, si bien la hipotesis de que la incorporacion de timidina en la celula constituye un indice de la sintesis del oxido desoxirribonucleico es demasiado simplista, el empleo de dicho indicador permite obtener aparentemente datos de considerable interes acerca de las fases iniciales del proceso.
Posle vyderzhivanija v termostate v laboratornyh uslovijah kletok s takim soedineniem byli sdelany radioavtogrammy kletok, i DNK byla takzhe otdelena i proverena na aktivnost' tritija pri pomoshhi protochnogo schetchika. Sravnenie dvuh metodov analiza pokazalo zametnoe rashozhdenie. Aktivnost' tritija na kletku, rasschitannaja po radioavtogrammam, vsegda okazyvalas' bol'she, chem aktivnost' otdelennoj DNK. Posledujushhij analiz pri pomoshhi protochnogo schetchika. Full Text Available Castor oil was reacted by transesterification with various percentages in mass of pentaerythritol to obtain different esters of pentaerythritol.
Alternatively, glycerol was also used instead of pentaerythritol for the same reaction in order to establish comparative reference products. Analysis for hydroxyl value, acid value, viscosity and specific gravity were used to complete the characterization of the polyols obtained and also of the original castor oil. The polymer characterization was accomplished by tensile stress-strain tests , Shore A hardness, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical resistance to solvents.
Impiego di materiali plastici nell'industria alimentare: rilascio di 'Endocrine Disruptors' valutato mediante test a breve termine in vitro. Synthesis and characterization of alanine boron hydrate for its use in thermal neutron dosimetry. Alanine boron hydrate was synthesized for its possible use as intercomparison dosimeter for thermal neutron irradiation. The salt was prepared by reacting alanine and boric acid in a stoichiometric ratio in neutral pH 7. Solutions were stirred and afterwards were let to evaporate.
The obtained product in each reaction is a white solid. For 30 hours. The analysis of irradiated samples was made in a Variant E Electron Paramagnetic Resonance spectrometer. In order to investigate the optimum signal enhancement samples were prepared in a basic pH medium in the following stoichiometric ratios: It was observed that the samples of the reaction The reaction product was chemically characterized by X-ray diffraction, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Chromatography, Refractometry and Solubility tests.
Results indicate that alanine boron hydrate is formed in basic media and in a stoichiometric ratio The dosimetric characterization of alanine boron hydrate was performed, results are reported. It is concluded that alanine boron hydrate may be a good intercomparison dosimeter for thermal neutron irradiation. Synthesis and characterization of conditioned carbon with iron nanoparticles for the arsenic removal in aqueous phase; Sintesis y caracterizacion de carbon acondicionado con nanoparticulas de hierro para la remocion de arsenico en fase acuosa.
Using pineapple husks conditioned with carboxymethylcellulose, hexamine and ferric nitrate, a carbonaceous material was obtained with nanoparticles of Fe C Fe , which was characterized and tested for arsenic removal in the aqueous phase. The microscopic study showed spheres 4 microns and filaments nm wide, so as iron particles whose diameter decreases to an average of According to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, C Fe contains C X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed energy states of C 1 and O 1 in pineapple shell washed, shell conditioned with iron, C Fe at different times and the pyrolysis coal without iron C B.
The isotherms as a function of concentration were adjusted to Freundlich model indicating multilayer chemisorption at specific sites of a heterogeneous medium. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy after the sample sorption Fe nanoparticles remain in the carbonaceous. The synthesis of the insecticides Aldrin and Dieldrin labelled with carbon at high specific activity; Synthese des insecticides aldrine et dieldrine marques au carbone de haute activite specifique; Sintez insektitsidnogo aldrina i dildrina, mechennykh uglerodom pri vysokoj udel'noj aktivnosti; Sintesis de los insecticidas aldrin y dieldrin de elevada actividad especifica marcados con carbono Los autores describen la separacion del octaclorociclopenteno del producto bruto de la reaccion de Prins por cromatografia gas-liquido, y la separacion del aldrin y del dieldrin en pequena escala, por cromatografia sobre el papel, de fase invertida.
V dokumente soderzhitsya otchet ob otdelenii oktokhlorotsiklopentana ot syrogo produkta reaktsii Prinsa putem gazozhidkoj khromatografii i ob otdelenii aldrina i dildrina v nebol'shom kolichestve putem obratnoj fazy bumazhnoj khromatografii. Ezeta-Mejia, A. E-mail: araceli-ezeta hotmail. Sin embargo, la reaccion de reduccion de oxigeno, RRO, que se lleva a cabo en el catodo de la pila, juega un papel determinante debido a que es la reaccion limitante del proceso, por lo que se requiere el empleo de electrocatalizadores mas eficientes.
El electrocatalizador optimo para esta reaccion es el Pt, pero debido a su costo elevado se han tenido que buscar electrocatalizadores alternativos que conjuguen una alta actividad, estabilidad y bajo costo. Se realizo una comparacion de la actividad electrocatalitica en presencia y ausencia de Pt, mostrando que el Pt incrementa la actividad catalitica de los materiales en al menos un orden de magnitud.
Full Text Available The synthesis of sound textures, such as rain, wind, or crowds, is an important application for cinema, multimedia creation, games and installations. However, despite the clearly defined requirements of naturalness and flexibility, no automatic method has yet found widespread use. After clarifying the definition, terminology, and usages of sound texture synthesis, we will give an overview of the many existing methods and approaches, and the few available software implementations, and classify them by the synthesis model they are based on, such as subtractive or additive synthesis, granular synthesis, corpus-based concatenative synthesis, wavelets, or physical modeling.
Additionally, an overview is given over analysis methods used for sound texture synthesis, such as segmentation, statistical modeling, timbral analysis, and modeling of transitions. Sintesis membran Poliuretan dari Karagenan dan 2, 4 Toylulene diisosianat. The PU membrane made from the Gracilaria sp of red seaweed has rendement of The produced Carrageenan has pure properties with containing many OH groups which can be used to synthesize membrane.
PU membrane was constructed using petri dish with the thickness of about 0. To control the thickness of the membrane, the volume of dope solution was used about 12 mL, and the membrane was produced with 10 cm in diameter. The optimum PU membrane obtained was good in mechanical and physical properties, strong, elastic and transparent. Keywords: carrageenan, flux, membrane, polyurethane, rejection factor, TDI. Full Text Available The growing interest in nanostructured conducting polymers is caused by expanding area of their practical application.
Conducting polymers can be used in new electronic devices transistors, displays, sensors, energy storage and memory cells, materials for shielding electromagnetic irradiation, inhibition of corrosion, membrane constructing, catalysis and medicine. The studies of polyaniline PANI and other conducting polymers have shown that they possess semiconducting properties.
Due to its high stability and unique complex of properties, PANI was the first among conducting polymers to be used in practice as an electrode material for batteries, as a corrosion inhibitor and detecting material for sensors. An organic phase contained aniline dissolved in toluene, while the oxidant was dissolved in acid. The produced PANIs have conductivities in the range 0. Their nanofiber morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy SEM.
Pada perkembangan selanjutnya, teknik ini juga dapat digunakan untuk mensintesis suara. Dalam Tugas Akhir ini, akan dibangun suatu aplikasi yang dapat membuat frame-frame animasi gerakan jatuh bebas benda dengan menggunakan teknik Physically Based Motion, sekaligus mensintesis suara yang sesuai dengan gerakan yang dihasilkan.
Sistem akan melakukan penghitungan gerakan benda untuk menghasilkan frame-frame animasi. Disamping itu, data suara yang dihasilkan juga digunakan untuk mensintesis suara, sehingga suara yang dihasilkan sesuai dengan gerakan benda. Setelah dilakukan uji coba terhadap aplikasi yang telah dibuat, dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa gerakan dan suara yang dihasilkan sangat dipengaruhi oleh material properties dan jumlah iterasi yang digunakan untuk melakukan penghitungan.
Sedangkan jumlah titik, face dan element dari objek mempengaruhi waktu yang digunakan untuk melakukan penghitungan. Full Text Available Different mechanisms by antibiotics selectively kill or inhibit growth and proliferation of pathogen bacteria. Some antibiotics work by interfering the process of protein synthesis in bacterial ribosome, the machinery that builds proteins amino acid by amino acid for the living bacterial cell. This type of antibiotics which inhibit the protein synthesis include streptomycin, chlor amphenicol and tetracycline which are described in this article.
Antibiotic resistencic is a worldwide problem in treating infectious diseases. Multiple factors contribute to the problem, but the most important ones are the prevalence of resistance genes and the excessive or inappropriate antibiotic use.
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics may develop from the natural state of the bacterial genome, or the bacteria can acquire resistance genes by mutation or exchange of genes. Bacteria are able to exchange genes by several mechanisms such as conjugation, transduction, transposition and transformation, in which genetic material caries such plasmids, bacteriophages or transposons play an important role.
Hydroxyapatite is a ceramic material that has chemical composition and crystal structure similar to the human bone, then it iscompatible to use as bone implant. The most one of method that used production of hydroxiapatite is precipitation method. The aim of this research is to determine the kinetics reaction of the synthesis of hydroxyapatite using one drop precipitation method. The research was started with stirred 8.
Then added with 1,8 M phosphoric aci Full Text Available Perlindungan gugus aldehida melalui pembentukan asetal umumnya dilakukan dengan metanol atau etanol terkatalis asam. Sitronelal memiliki gugus aldehida dan gugus alkena. Dalam lingkungan asam, sitronelal mudah mengalami siklisasi membentuk isopulegol dan isomernya.
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis dimetil asetal sitronelal dengan katalis gas HCl. Penggunaan gas HCl secara terbatas dimaksudkan untuk menghindari siklisasi sitronelal. Dalam suatu reaktor, 10 mL sitronelal ditambah dengan 20 mL metanol absolut dan 2 g CaCl2 pada labu leher tiga. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan variasi temperatur dan jumlah CaCl2. Peningkatan temperatur dan jumlah CaCl2 meningkatkan konversi sitronelal. Elusidasi struktur dengan spektrofotometer infra merah IR dan resonansi magnetik inti 1H-NMR pada hasil distilasi fraksinasi membuktikan adanya struktur asetal sitronelal.
Aldehyde group protection through acetal formation is generally performed by acid catalyzed methanol or ethanol. Citronellal that has aldehyde and alkene groups. In acidic environment, it is prone to do cyclization to form isopulegol and its isomers. This study aims to synthesize dimethyl acetal of citronellal with HCl gas catalysts. The limitation of HCl using gas was intended to avoid the citronellal cyclization.
In a reactor, 10 mL citronellal was added with 20 mL of absolute methanol and 2 g CaCl2 in the three-neck flask. The increasing of temperature and amount of CaCl2 increased the citronellal conversion, then After 48 hours the quantity of dimethyl acetal of citronellal reached Fractional distillation by pressure reduction 5 cmHg was proven to be able to improve the purity of dimethyl acetal citronellal up to Structure elucidation with IR and 1H-NMR in distilled fractionation product have proven the presence of citronellal acetal structure.
Test Architecture, Test Retrofit. Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change.
Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…. Dans de telles syntheses, on peut prevoir que le caractere anomerique du lien glycosidique du di saccharide dormeur sera conserve dans le disaccharide synthetise et que le reste glucosyl transfere s'unira par son groupe reducteur au glucoside de monosaccharide recepteur.
En employant, soit un disaccharide donneur marque au carbone, soit un glucoside recepteur egalement marque au carbone, on peut synthetiser un disaccharide dont un seul des deux sucres est marque. Les structures de I et II ont ete etablies par analyse elementaire, ainsi que par l'etude de l'activite optique, des spectres infrarouges et des produits obtenus par hydrolyse en milieu acide et par oxydation au periodate.
Testing Significance Testing. Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions.
Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference.
We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods. Production and characterization of a Fe-Ni alloy by aqueous coloidal processing and solid state reaction; Producao e caracterizacao de uma liga Fe-Ni obtida por processamento coloidal aquoso e reacao de estado solido. Colloidal processing is a widely used technique to produce ceramic components. Several papers have been published in the last decade presenting the possibility to obtain aqueous concentrate stable suspension of metallic particles from their pH control and using dispersants.
This paper aims to study the production of a steel with austenitic microstructure using elemental iron Fe and nickel Ni powders via colloidal route. The compacts were characterized by density Archimedes , differential thermal analysis DTA and dilatometry. Seismic testing. This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing ; objectives of seismic testing ; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing.
Schirmer test. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive Pinworm test. Oxyuriasis test ; Enterobiasis test ; Tape test The best time to do this is in Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a Full Text Available In this paper, a study on the contribution of the different aggregation mechanisms of surface modified colloidal particles is presented.
Ion concentration was set close and higher than to the critical coagulation concentration c. Static and dynamic light scattering were employed to determine the cluster fractal dimension, df , and the rate of aggregation, ks , as a function of the degree of coverage. Experimental results show structural rearrangement within the clusters due to the presence of protein on the particle surface.
Steric stability was observed for the highest BSA degree of coverage. Weak flocculation was not present and coagulation and bridging flocculation mechanisms appear to be as clear candidates for explaining the experimental results. Ultrasonic Testing. This book introduces ultrasonic testing , which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing , principle of ultrasonic testing , prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test , basic theory on ultrasonic testing , mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS JIS ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing , straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.
Trichomonas Testing. With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to Coombs test. Direct antiglobulin test ; Indirect antiglobulin test ; Anemia - hemolytic No special preparation is necessary for this test. There are 2 types of the Coombs test : Direct Indirect The direct Many diseases Ham test. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Magnesium Test. Lipase Test. Rubella Test. Mono Test. AMA Test. Neuropathy Tests.
Pharmacogenomic Testing. Predictive Testing. Syphilis Test. Randomization tests. Test chamber. A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in.
Tensile testing. A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test , the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test , with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results.
Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests , such as tension properties to predict the behavior including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of Test quality.
Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code the Code. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test 's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure.
The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions.
These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing. This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code the Code. This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test Laboratory Tests.
What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues Triglycerides Test. Triglycerides; —2 p. Lab Tests Lactate Test. Lactate Liquid Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc.
Electrolytes Test. Monitoring potassium is important Ferritin Test. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if Cholesterol Test. Other names for a cholesterol test : Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c Cholesterol Test : Overview; Jan 12 [ Gonorrhea Test.
Susceptibility Testing. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and Nationale test. Nationale Test. Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Fysisk medie: dpu. VDRL test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different Drug Testing.
Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to HIV Testing. CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of Nondestructive Testing.
A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the future usefulness of the object. This booklet discusses a few basic methods of nondestructive testing , and some of their characteristics. In addition, it discusses possible future methods for nondestructive testing by taking a quick look at some of the methods now under study. Ultrasonic testing. Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ.
For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams.
This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy. Troponins Test. You will need to return MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online Insulin Test. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer Genetic Testing.
For a person who faces this situation, a negative gene test would indicate that symptoms are not the result of celiac disease. A positive gene test , however, does not diagnose Potassium test. This may cause a falsely high result. Disorders of potassium balance. Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Oedometer Tests. The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results.
The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from How is the sample collected for testing? Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.
Trypsinogen test. What Abnormal Results Other risks associated with having Just testing. In the s, most of the men who witnessed Britain's nuclear tests at Christmas Island in the Pacific were national servicemen, aged 19 or Some revelled in sun and swimming, some were bored, some were too busy to be bored.
How many of the twenty thousand servicemen involved in the tests suspected that they might be exposed to radiation that would reveal itself a generation later in blood and bone cancers, sterility, cataracts, or deformities in their children.
The Ministry of Defence insists nobody was in danger. This book tells a different story, in the words of the servicemen, and of their medical reports, about secrets which are no longer Official. It is important not only to the victims of a government's extraordinary reluctance to face up to the tragic consequences of a programme of nuclear tests on Christmas Island and in Australia, but to anyone concerned with the damage that nuclear testing is still doing in the world today.
Test Ship. Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. Injection Tests. The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on.
The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in Fungal Tests.
Wu, A. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp , , , Forbes, B. PTH Test. Gregory C. Lab Tests Online adjunct board member. Sources Used Phosphorus Test. Someone with a mild Calcium is routinely tested as Procalcitonin Test. When is RSV Test. Prenatal Tests. They include things like checking urine pee levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine Progesterone Test. At specific times during In un gioco perverso tra i due, lui inisce per cedere alla richiesta di lei di essere uccisa.
Mustafa viene processato per aver assassinato Jean Morris e per aver spinto al suicidio altre tre donne. It was I who killed them. I am a desert of thirst. I am no Othello. I am a lie. Si sposa con una donna del luogo di nome Hosna Bint Mahmud. Mustafa dimostra che in fondo nonostante lo scontro con il colonizzatore, egli aveva ancora bisogno della sua presenza culturale. Non potendo convivere con questa condizione, Hosna decide di uccidere il promesso sposo, per poi togliersi la vita. Il discorso di Desdemona proferito in presenza del senato di Venezia ne costituisce un valido esempio Nel suo animo avviene una lacerazione, egli si sente perduto tra il nord che ha lasciato e il sud che tenta di ritrovare; un dolore acutizzato dalla perdita di Hosna della quale si era innamorato e che egli non ha avuto il coraggio di proteggere.
I was unable to continue, unable to return. Per avviarsi verso la conclusione, nella Stagione della migrazione a Nord trovano rafigurazione i conlitti razziali, di genere e tra Oriente e Occidente. Lo scritto viene tradotto in lingua inglese nel con il titolo Lina: a Portrait of a Damascene Girl.
Distorted relections of his image poured on her like small moons, the boy who followed her on the stairs with a bunch of daisies in his hand begging her for a kiss, the boy who told the neighbourhood boys that she was his beloved and stood under her balcony in the sun, in the rain, in the wind as if he were a statue, the boy who threatened to strangle her and to strangle himself if he saw her on the arm of another man and wrote her broken poems, the boy who sent her a bad translation of Othello and once in a while gave her yellow books Desdemona diviene simbolo di una donna tenace che si ribella al potere maschile.
Attraverso il monologo interiore, Lina esplora il sentimento di amore e odio verso il idanzato. Ripensa alle donne di sua conoscenza, anche loro costrette a subire la prepotenza maschile. Quando Lina rilette sulla gelosia morbosa del idanzato, rievoca le parole di Otello prima di uccidere Desdemona, ripercorrendo la scena nella mente Tematica presente anche nella prosa araba classica, che ha suggestionato numerosi mistici e ilosoi islamici.
She was suffering just like a sparrow that is incapable of battling against the wind. Do you understand? Listen: human beings can express such pain in many ways. As soon as the door closed her mother would be in the hallway, meeting her with abuse, and she would say that she had been at school in the group taking coaching in physics, and her father would shout out that he had the curriculum of the group and that there were no classes on Tuesday.
Muna trova nel proprio animo le stesse emozioni che Desdemona aveva percepito di fronte al rancore ingiusto di Otello. Ghazoul, Idem. Per uno studio dettagliato del romanzo si veda: I. Denys Johnson-Davies, London, Heineman, , Khanam, ; The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol. Ghazoul, op. The play grimly chronicles the events of the Roman civil wars from Pharsalus to Philippi.
It must be included in that class of Elizabethan plays about the Roman civil wars, which exude a speciic ideological content, bordering on didactic ostentation. Ancient history is offered as an epitome of exempla execranda, aptly distanced by virtue of their remote origin but effective as unequivocal warnings for the future of England against possible relapses in the internecine struggles which had preceded the establishment of Tudor monarchy.
These anxieties obviously worsened as the queen aged, still obstinately persisting in not naming an heir. For the Elizabethans, order and peace had to be protected at all costs. Their Picking of Quarrels to Fall out at Home. The tragedy is dominated by the allegorical and choric igure of Discord, the supreme puppet-master in the microcosm of the play.
Its speeches between acts clearly seek to underline the scope of the uncontrollable chaos brought about by this series of intestine conlicts. The extraordinary abundance of images of violence, blood, death and destruction with which the tragedy is interspersed also contributes to the same effect. Discord does not just conjure up images of devastation: it is, in fact, the ultimate origin of the paroxysm of violence that permeates the play, urging Romans to revenge, bloodshed and massacre through what resembles a demonic possession.
The latter openly expresses his longing for the destruction that will follow before the battle of Philippi 4. Cassius, on the other hand, is even more obsessed than Antony. His sadistic enjoyment of violence and his thirst for blood unequivocally make him the armed wing of Discord 5. His act exudes acquiescence 2. Any invocation to heaven is useless, which necessarily heightens the deep sense of pessimism emanating from the tragedy.
No shelter can be found from the horrors unleashed by this endless succession of struggles between countrymen, friends, brothers: even the sun must look for a hiding place to avoid witnessing such a spectacle 5. Nobody can emerge a winner from this grim and ceaseless sequence of battles: no light comes to shine through this night of massacres. The only winner, the only one who accomplishes its goal—the delagration of an entire world— is Discord, who at the end of the play stands gloating over the massacre it has produced: Ay, now my longing hopes have their desire.
The world is nothing but a messy heap Of bodies slain, the sea a lake of blood. Hell and Elysium must be dug in one, And both will be too little to contain Numberless numbers of aflicted ghosts That I myself have tumbling thither sent. It does not support any of the parties and its only, blood-curdling goal is the creation of a state of total disorder and permanent carnage. The Pompeians are obsessed with the centrality of Fortune in earthly matters.
The emblem of their resigned submission to Fortune18 is surprisingly their leader and inspirer himself. More than once he just wails about the repercussions this defeat will have on his reputation rather than on the disastrous consequences of the war 1. Me hath she dandled in her folding arms And fed my hopes with prosperous events. She crowned my cradle with success and honour: And shall disgrace await my hapless hearse? The microcosm of the play appears, if possible, even gloomier since conlicts are shown to spring mainly from personal rather than political motivations.
Stab on! Thus should your poniards play A loud deep note upon this trembling key. He conceives the assassination as a watershed between his former and future lives 3. He will begin experiencing the irst hesitations and ominous presentiments only a few moments before the battle of Philippi 5. What emerges from the meetings of the Pompeians is little more than hazy references to the loss of honour and liberty and the sense of shame provoked by the military defeat at Pharsalus 1.
The concept widely penetrates the speeches of all the anti-Caesarians, from Trebonius 2. The tragedy does not therefore seem to be merely intended either as an apology or a condemnation of tyrannicide. Translation mine. Emanuele Narducci, Rizzoli, , 2. On Fulbecke, see Daniel R. Frederick S. Boas, Malone, , 2. Mackie, ed.
Brian S. David Daniell, Nelson, , 2. All references to the play are to this edition. Stanford E. Lehmberg, Dent, , 2. See also Catherine E. Hadield, Skakespeare and Republicanism, p. This characterisation relects Renaissance statecraft theory, which posed the existence of a clear link between effemination and tyranny: as Rebecca W.
Mario A. This unequivocal identiication of Caesar as a tyrant—more precisely, as a tyrannus ex defectu tituli, since the play does not depict any concrete tyrannical action on his part, aside from a few vague allusion to his despotic behaviour in a brief conversation among three minor igures of the Pompeian party 3.
After some clashes with the ambitions of the aristocracy, Edward was imprisoned and inally sentenced to death in January This sounded quite contradictory at the end of the sixteenth-century, since at the time the concept of sodomy implied the overthrowing of an established order2 that the Monarch had to guarantee.
Furthermore, the inextricable intermingling of the personal and the political in the methods of access to the sovereign staged by the tragedy, dangerously leads the audience to question the nature of monarchy itself and its division of public ofices.
Even the justiication of regicide may come from this source. It is very probable that Marlowe was informed about French political affairs, especially the gossip surrounding the king. Marlowe was just eight years old when the massacre took place.
Marlowe, then, could have heard about the murder of the Huguenots through his acquaintance with Walsingham and his circle. Moreover, Philip Sidney was also in Paris during St. The recollection of this terrible episode followed the English poet for the rest of his life, as one can infer from his correspondence with French diplomats.
In this time, indeed, inexplicable absences of the dramatist from the University of Cambridge were recorded. Riggs, however, also cites the ambiguous letter to Queen Elizabeth, sent on 29 June by the Privy Council. For example, the dramatist could also have read or heard about the letters between Francis and his correspondents in France.
French sources Henri de Valois is perhaps one of the most controversial kings in French history. The authority of his role was undermined by several problems upsetting the country in the last decades of the sixteenth century, for instance, serious religious and inancial divisions. He fashioned himself as a fervent Catholic. Faced with these circumstances, Henri III had to face the menace of an inluent Catholic group, the League, whose leader, the Duke of Guise, had acquired much popular favour among the powerful aristocratic families of the time.
In order to preserve his power, the King increased his absolutistic methods, surrounding himself by political auxiliaries of his own. Anne de Batarnay de Joyeuse and Jean Louis de Nogaret de la Valette, best known as Joyeuse and Epernon, gained high political duties over other aristocrats who had served the crown for centuries.
For these reasons, a general popular resentment against the King and his functionaries grew throughout the country. Because of the loss of their leader, and the deprivation of inancial revenues due to a tax revolt, the League and other aristocratic families began to spread very negative propaganda against their King.
If Rossant describes the royal favourites as bad political counsellors and opportunists,21 Boucher describes them as guilty of manoeuvring their Kings through lascivious acts, especially of the homoerotic type. Rossant also speciies that Edward fell in love with his favourites. It is in particular the intimacy of the King with his mignons which is perceived as problematic.
Nevertheless, since Henri III was a Catholic, in order to justify his deposition, it was necessary to demonstrate that he had deceived his faith. This doctrine conferred on the French citizens the right to depose their King in case he sacriiced his monarchical duties for the sake of his own dark desires. However, as Arlette Jouanna32 relates, the appeal to such doctrines only occurred when the clashes between the ambitious aristocrats and the absolutist methods of the Monarch were heightened.
Moreover, the homoerotic bond turns out to be one of the main causes of the other wider conlict in the play, the one between the Crown and the aristocracy. For example, he promotes the Spencers because they are introduced to him by Gaveston. Not only does she surrender to aching monologues for her unrequited love, but Gaveston even dares to insinuate to the King that a dangerous relationship between the Queen and Mortimer Junior is taking place. The King looks extremely irresponsible and easily corruptible by his favourite.
It is at this point of the tragedy that the French sources appear to be reworked in a surprisingly original way by Marlowe. First of all, through the powerful speeches he creates,52 the dramatist lets both factions disclose before the audience the deepest reasons for their actions. As Normand shows,53 the conlict is now between the public discourse over homoerotic desire set up by Mortimer Junior, who deliberately assigns Edward the disparaging role of the sodomite, and the private discourse within which the relationship between the King and Gaveston is inscribed.
Nevertheless, the relationship between Edward and Gaveston reveals itself to be the only authentic bond in the play. In the last act, the real sodomites turn out to be, unexpectedly, Mortimer Junior and Isabella. They end up killing the King, who is, ironically, the top representative of the very public order they are ighting for. Feared I am more than loved; let me be feared, And when I frown, make all the court look pale. Now is all sure: the queen and Mortimer Shall rule the realm, the king, and none rule us.
Mine enemies will I plague, my friends advance, And what I list command who dare control? This violent act does appear as the prelude to other civil wars in the history of the English monarchy, rather than a way of restoring peace in the country. Two conlicting ideas of power are presented on the Marlovian stage.
In the history of France the last of the Valois Kings has inally been stabbed to death, and the restoration to the throne of his legitimate successor, the Protestant Henri de Navarre has been extremely painful. The designation of a successor to the aged heirless Queen had become a matter of the utmost urgency, and the Scottish succession appeared to be a reasonable one. The Lords of the English Parliament, however, began to fear the prospect of a foreign sovereign who might favour his own court over the English one, thus menacing their political role.
This situation might have had some inluence on Marlowe. The hypothesis is held among others by Constance B. The latter gained so much political favour that he soon attracted the suspicion and hatred of the political institutions and the Protestant faction. The poet was then recommended to Francis Walsingham and travelled to France in May He also met the French diplomat Hubert Languet and they started a correspondence. See R. Kuin ed. The irst part consists of several sketches which show a perfect awareness of the abrupt and cruel methods of extermination of the French Huguenots in August The Admiral was killed, and many good men perished with him ….
What was the result? However, the two writers at least heard about each other. Le Riche, , Cimber eds. Rossant, Meurs, humeurs, There is much debate about Boucher authorship of the pamphlet, see Frederic J.
However, there has been much critical debate about the authorship of the treatise; critics today tend to attribute it to Languet only See M. The anachronism conirms the hypothetical inluence of the French sources on Marlowe. Earlier in the play I,i, line , Edward humiliates another representative igure of the Church, the Bishop of Coventry, whose vestments are stripped. The effect is to underline the outrageous behaviour of the King in front of the Church.
This contrast with the Catholic side seems again to echo the French political conlicts of the s. Access is guaranteed to all citizens. Habermas, S. Lennox, F. The stigmatisation of Edward II as a sodomite, then, uncannily anticipates the innuendo spread over James I, and demonstrates that accusations of sodomy to the King arise in response to perceptions of the politics of patronage as corrupt. This passage has always been central to critical debate: how had Shakespeare become acquainted with the name and reputation of the Italian artist?
And again, why did the poet decide to name, as creator of a statue, an artist who was in fact both a painter and an architect, but never a sculptor? The irst part of my work will comprise a general survey of the possible sources through which the name and reputation of Giulio could have reached Shakespeare, while in the second part I will briely discuss the main scholarly views about his mistake. How Shakespeare became familiar with the name of Giulio Romano — the famous Italian artist employed irst in Rome, as a pupil of Raphael, and later at the Gonzaga court in Mantua — has been a problem that many critics have tried to solve.
On the other hand, as both Sir Sidney Lee3 and Mario Praz4 emphasize, it was not dificult for an Englishman living in the Elizabethan age to be well- informed about Italy and Italian art. All of these conjectures are, however, based on unsubstantiated verbal exchanges, and are therefore not veriiable.
The case is different with the written sources available to us. This work was not published in English until , and the part re-elaborated by Peacham in The Compleat Gentleman not only was not published until , but did not include any reference to Giulio. Nevertheless, many critics, such as Maria del Sapio, Stephen Orgel, Ernst Gombrich and Leonard Barkan10, believe that Shakespeare could have read the Vite in the original language, and based his knowledge of the Italian artist on it This last hypothesis deserves, in my opinion, more consideration than the others.
But why then the wrong name, why Giulio for Giancristoforo? His extensive poetic output includes more than vernacular rhymes, mostly sonnets, of which were published in Modena in This work was so successful that, after just 50 years, 41 reprints and new editions had been published and read all over Europe, part of that great stream of Italian lyric poetry that so strongly inluenced their English counterparts in the sixteenth century.
Examining this volume, I came across a cycle of seven sonnets celebrating the wondrous statue of a dead woman beloved by a man called Leone. To detail the moving story behind these sonnets is not the focus of this paper Sufice it to say that Ambrogio Leone, humanist doctor and philosopher, was so passionately in love with the young Beatrice de Notariis that he had her sculpted in marble by the renowned artist Malvito; and that this statue was the only thing left to him after her tragic death.
It is because of this extraordinary verosimiglianza that Leontes feels an irresistible impulse to kiss the statue, even though he knows that he will be mocked for it Ma guarda, se al suo viso te apresenti, de chinar gli occhi e non spechiarte in ello che pietra de sculptor tu non diventi.
But, ironically, the Romano whom Tebaldeo is addressing is not Giulio Romano, but Giancristoforo Romano, on the occasion of his coming, in , to that same court of Mantua in which Giulio became famous only a few years later. But this, through a simple reading of the sonnet, could not be guessed.
As for the treatises by Lomazzo and Serlio, it is dificult to imagine why Shakespeare would have been diligently studying two technical architectural works. In my opinion then, Shakespeare, looking for a famous name that at least some part of his public might recognize, thought irstly of a name to be found in contemporaneous writing, known to the noblemen, the travellers and to the artists who had visited the continent.
Giulio Romano seemed then a good choice, since Shakespeare could have heard him mentioned in his circle of friends and patrons, or through one of the many sources quoted in the irst part of this work. Moreover, the name itself, Giulio Romano — being so emblematic of Italian greatness, with its reference both to the capital of the state and to its most celebrated and famous emperor — must have been particularly appealing to Shakespeare, because of its capacity to suggest in a most immediate way the ambiguous power of Italian artistic hegemony.
A man continually praying for it to awaken. La Posa Eroica di Ofelia. Saggi sul Personaggio Femminile nel Teatro Elisabettiano, vol. E nel vero non si doverebbono i doni di Dio adoperare, come molte volte si fa, in vituperio del mondo et in cose abominevoli del tutto.
Nelle redazioni del e , vol. Pietro Aretino, Lettere, vol. Paul Lomatius painter of Milan and Englished by R. Student in Physik, , II, A man who had one skill would very likely be credited with the others. Sir Thomas Hoby, J. See: Marc Bormand, in Mantegna, , Hazan, , In effect, in his recent contribution, Kevin A. Quarmby has revealed that the fascination with the royal disguise is a timeless literary pattern which may be traced back to the Shakespearean Henry V IV, 1 or even earlier to the classical Odysseus.
In other words, the Italian negative examples of failed leadership, drawn from the sixteenth-century political writings of Machiavelli, Guicciardini and Castiglione, provided the Jacobean dramatists with historical types, offering them the opportunity to investigate the identity of national monarchy. Finally, within the critical framework of stylistics and drawing on the concept of foregrounding, I propose a close analysis of the ifth act, focusing on the marked usage of the topic termed grace as a dubious formula for eventually entitling the Duke a divine-like ruler.
More generally, it foreshadows the gradual removal of the divine presence from the political and social sphere of human actions on the threshold of early modernity. In no time at all Remirro reduced the territory to a peaceful and united state, and in so doing, the Duke greatly increased his prestige. Afterwards, the Duke judged that such excessive authority was no longer required, since he feared that it might become odious, and in the middle of the territory he set up a civil tribunal with a very distinguished president, in which each city had its own advocate.
In addition, on more than one occasion, James suspended a death sentence in order to demonstrate that justice should be combined with mercy, as the Duke with Angelo in the ifth act. The like say I now of Justice, which is the greatest vertue, that properly belongeth to a Kinges ofice. Vse Justice, but with such moderation, as it turne not in tyrannie: otherwaies summum ius is summa iniuria. He who the sword of heaven will bear Should be as holy as severe: Pattern in himself to know, Grace to stand, and virtue go: More nor less than others paying Than by self-offences weighing.
On one level, he simultaneously assumes the role of director of his comedy, so that the play switches in tone from a tragic beginning towards the inal happy conclusion — thus its deinition as tragicomedy. In his soliloquy, he wishes for the possibility of a just government — hence the presence of future forms such as will and shall — but, simultaneously, the remarking occurrence of modal verbs — must, should, may — is evidence of the fact that his wish lingers in the ield of volition and possibility.
More interestingly, Shakespeare shifts the attention from an explicit political approach to the issue of national divine sovereignty to a meta-literary investigation into the fragmentation of the late-medieval, divine-like structured world, the Elizabethan chain of being. To do so, the tragicomedy undertakes a linguistic survey which highlights a mismatch between words and actions, and between expected and achieved social and theatrical roles.
More speciically, I will focus on the foregrounded, marked usage of this term in the inal act against a semantic variation, or an otherwise less marked, use of grace in the other Acts. Interestingly however, this is the only occurrence of the word grace in the ifth act used to address the Duke alone — 8 concordances out of 24, except for line Within a selection of a double-sized range enclosing the word grace, the possessive your is the highest rated — 7 out of 24 occurrences, 5 of which are in the ifth act — followed by royal grace with 2 hits in the ifth act.
Hence, the repetition of the lattery expression your royal grace towards the Duke prevails against an internal backdrop of semantic variation in the rest of the play. In other words, the internal foregrounding in the ifth act consists in the absence of the same semantic variety of the term grace which characterized the previous textual sections. These are the occurrences of the term in the entire ifth act: Happy return be to your royal grace!
Therefore, the inal complimentary expression your royal grace addressed to the Duke appoints him as a virtuous ruler displaying his divine favour and, ultimately, deines him by those Jamesian qualities on which he modelled his authority. Due to the accepted notion of arbitrariness in Renaissance linguistic theory, the correctness of a linguistic utterance was not judged in terms of its coherence to a unique and exact meaning, but it depended on decorum, or the capability of properly itting words, within a given context, in an artful style.
Unfortunately, however, the complimentary phrase does not entirely measure up to its expected actions. Thus, tit for tat, measure for measure. Endnotes 1 Kevin A. John W. Mahon and Thomas A. Pendleton, Methuen, , Michele Marrapodi, Bulzoni, , ; Michael J. Lever, Arden Shakespeare, , xlviii. Mariangela Tempera, Clueb, , Costui in poco tempo la ridusse paciica et unita, con grandissima reputazione.
Luigi Firpo, Einaudi, , II, Stevenson, see Lever, introduction, xlviii. Interestingly, D. Lever, The Arden Shakespeare, James Craigie, Scottish Text Society, , Catherine M. Alexander, Cambridge University Press, This remarkable standing out of an item or construction is intended against a determinate background either external or internal to the text, see Paul Simpson, Stylistics: A Resource Book for Students, Routledge, , At a further point, I would like to extend my research on the saliency of the term to the entire Shakespearean corpus and to the other Jacobean plays.
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