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Species was a significant risk factor in both models, with Asian elephants at greater risk daytime: p elephants p Endocrine correlates of musth in free-ranging Asian elephants Elephas maximus determined by non-invasive faecal steroid hormone metabolite measurements.
Full Text Available The occurrence of musth, a period of elevated levels of androgens and heightened sexual activity, has been well documented for the male Asian elephant Elephas maximus. However, the relationship between androgen-dependent musth and adrenocortical function in this species is unclear. The current study is the first assessment of testicular and adrenocortical function in free-ranging male Asian elephants by measuring levels of testosterone androgen and cortisol glucocorticoid--a physiological indicator of stress metabolites in faeces.
During musth, males expectedly showed significant elevation in faecal testosterone metabolite levels. Interestingly, glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations remained unchanged between musth and non-musth periods. This observation is contrary to that observed with wild and captive African elephant bulls and captive Asian bull elephants. Our results show that musth may not necessarily represent a stressful condition in free-ranging male Asian elephants. First report of changes in leukocyte morphology in response to inflammatory conditions in Asian and African elephants Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana.
Full Text Available Although the hematology of healthy elephants has been well-described, published information on hematological changes during disease is limited. The objective of this study was to describe qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of Asian and African elephants Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana diagnosed with a variety of inflammatory conditions.
Twenty-five of 27 elephants had morphological changes in their leukocytes, although only 16 of these had a concurrent inflammatory leukogram. Although the observed leukocyte morphological changes are non-specific, their early recognition upon blood film evaluation may provide important, clinically-relevant information, particularly if the leukogram is normal. This case series is the first description of qualitative morphological changes in the leukocytes of elephants in association with inflammation.
Full Text Available For more than three decades, foot and musculoskeletal conditions have been documented among both Asian [ Elephas maximus ] and African [Loxodonta africana] elephants in zoos. Although environmental factors have been hypothesized to play a contributing role in the development of foot and musculoskeletal pathology, there is a paucity of evidence-based research assessing risk.
We investigated the associations between foot and musculoskeletal health conditions with demographic characteristics, space, flooring, exercise, enrichment, and body condition for elephants housed in North American zoos during Clinical examinations and medical records were used to assess health indicators and provide scores to quantitate conditions. Full Text Available We evaluated African Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephas maximus elephants living in 68 North American zoos over one year to quantify housing and social variables.
Resolution of the type material of the Asian elephant , Elephas maximus Linnaeus, Proboscidea, Elephantidae. We further discovered that an additional E. Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in African Loxodonta africana and Asian Elephas maximus elephants.
The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5.
Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants , and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants Elephas maximus : Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.
Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant Elephas maximus females at Chester Zoo, UK, since Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a to week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons and the initiation of pregnancy in another female.
The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status pregnant, cycling, acyclic or management training, foot-care, matriarch presence.
Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present.
However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity.
Immune responses of Asian elephants Elephas maximus to commercial tetanus toxoid vaccine. Although captive elephants are commonly vaccinated annually against tetanus using commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccines marketed for use in horses and livestock, no data exists to prove that tetanus toxoid vaccination produces measurable antibody titers in elephants.
An ELISA test was created to measure antibody responses to tetanus toxoid vaccinations in 22 Asian elephants ranging in age from 24 to 56 years mean age 39 years over a 7-month period. All animals had been previously vaccinated with tetanus toxoid vaccine, with the last booster administered 4 years before the start of the study. The great majority of elephants had titers prior to booster vaccination, and following revaccination all elephants demonstrated anamnestic increases in titers, indicating that this species does respond to tetanus vaccination.
Surprisingly older animals mounted a significantly higher response to revaccination than did younger animals. Copyright Elsevier B. Successful artificial insemination in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus using chilled and frozen-thawed semen.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Artificial insemination AI using frozen-thawed semen is well established and routinely used for breeding in various mammalian species. However, there is no report of the birth of elephant calves following AI with frozen-thawed semen. The objective of the present study was to investigate the fertilizing ability of chilled and frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant following artificial insemination AI. Methods Semen samples were collected by from 8 bulls age range, to years by manual stimulation.
Blood samples collected from ten elephant females age range, to years were assessed for estrus cycle and elephants with normal cycling were used for AI. Artificial insemination series were conducted during to ; 55 and 2 AI trials were conducted using frozen-thawed and chilled semen, respectively. Pregnancy was detected using transrectal ultrasonography and serum progestagen measurement.
Results One female Khod inseminated with chilled semen became pregnant and gave birth in The gestation length was days and the sex of the elephant calf was male. One female Sao inseminated with frozen-thawed semen showed signs of pregnancy by increasing progestagen levels and a fetus was observed for 5 months by transrectal ultrasonography. Conclusion This is the first report showing pregnancy following AI with frozen-thawed semen in the Asian elephant.
Successful AI in the Asian elephant using either chilled or frozen-thawed semen is a stepping stone towards applying this technology for genetic improvement of the elephant population. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants Elephas maximus.
Full Text Available Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates.
Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants.
Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon elephants and used in published population viability analyses.
Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population. Among which infectious agents are crippling the wild life in terms of huge mortality and morbidity and terminating the life of several endangered species.
The most common occurrence and Hemorrhagic Septicemia HS or Pasturellosis has long been recognized as a serious disease in elephants. The present study revealed the occurrence of Hemorrhagic Septicemia HS in three national parks of Karnataka state among elephants. The disease was diagnosed based on the clinical signs, gross lesions, histopathology and microbiological findings.
Potential factors affecting semen quality in the Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major obstacles in using artificial insemination to manage genetics of elephant population in captivity is the large variations in semen quality among ejaculates within the same and among individuals. The objectives of this study were to determine the influences of 1 age 2 seasonality 3 and circulating testosterone SrTest, triiodothyronine SrT3 and tetraiodothyronine SrT4, as well as seminal 4 testosterone SpTest, zinc SpZn and protein SpTP on semen quality in the Asian elephant Methods Analyses, including motility, viability and morphology were performed in semen samples collected twice monthly from 13 elephant bulls age range, to years by manual stimulation between July and June Results The highest semen quality was observed at age 23 to 43 years.
Percentages of progressive motility and viable sperm were lowest at age 51 to 70 years P Conclusion This study indicates that age and seasonality had influence on semen characteristics in the Asian elephant. The knowledge obtained in this study will improve our understanding of the reproductive biology of this species. Ultrasonographically documented early pregnancy loss in an Asian elephant Elephas maximus. Early embryonic resorption or fetal loss is known to occur occasionally in captive elephants ; however, this has mostly been reported anecdotally.
The present study documents the case of a year-old, multiparous Asian elephant cow that suffered embryonic death and resorption at around 18 weeks of gestation. From ovulation onwards, this female was sonographically examined 58 times. Blood was collected twice weekly for progestagen determination via enzyme immunoassay. On Day 42 after ovulation, a small quantity of fluid was detected in the uterine horn, which typically indicates the presence of a developing conceptus.
Repeated inspections followed what appeared to be a normal pregnancy until Day However, on Day , signs of embryonic life were absent. Progestagen concentrations started declining two weeks later, reaching baseline levels one month after embryonic death. Retrospectively, ultrasound examination revealed several abnormalities in the uterine horn. Besides an existing leiomyoma, multiple small cystic structures had formed in the endometrium at the implantation site and later in the placenta.
These pathological findings were considered as possible contributors to the early pregnancy failure. PCR for endotheliotropic elephant herpes virus EEHV which had occurred previously in the herd as well as serology for other infectious organisms known to cause abortion in domestic animals did not yield any positive results. Although no definitive reason was found for this pregnancy to abort, this ultrasonographically and endocrinologically documented study of an early pregnancy loss provides important insights into the resorption process in Asian elephants.
Variation in the composition of milk of Asian elephants Elephas maximus throughout lactation. We investigated milk nutrient composition from three Asian elephant cows over the first 3 years of lactation, including two consecutive lactations in one cow. Body mass gain is presented for three calves during the first year. Concentrations of most nutrients changed over lactation: DM, fat, CP, Ca, P, and GE were positively correlated to calf age; sugar was negatively correlated to calf age.
After accounting for calf age, GE, fat, Ca, and P concentrations differed among the cows. Milk composition also differed between two lactations from the same cow. When milk nutrients were expressed on a mg per kcal basis, the pattern changes: CP, Ca, and P remained relatively constant over lactation on a per energy basis.
Calf mass quadrupled over the first year of life; mass gain was linear at 0. Asian elephant milk composition is variable, both across lactations and between cows, complicating efforts to determine representative values for comparative studies and for the formulation of elephant milk formulas. The fact that CP, Ca, and P were all relatively constant when expressed on a per energy basis may be of biological significance.
The increase in nutrient density over lactation undoubtedly limits maternal water loss, reducing the volume of milk necessary to support the calf. Full Text Available Social relationships of juvenile wild elephants years old in the Udawalawa National Park were studied. Focal animal sampling was employed to quantify behaviour of juveniles encountered on different occasions.
Nearest neighbour NN and nearest neighbour distance NND were considered for proximity analysis and the social relationships of focal animals. Adult females and juveniles were the NN of the study group during The mean NND was 1. Play and social contacts of juveniles with conspecifics, especially with peers, provides opportunity to develop skills and social confidence necessary in adulthood.
Detection of pathogenic elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus in routine trunk washes from healthy adult Asian elephants Elephas maximus by use of a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay. Animals 5 apparently healthy captive Asian elephants Elephas maximus from the same herd. The assay was used to evaluate paired whole blood and trunk-wash samples obtained from the 5 elephants during a week period. Deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing and viral gene subtyping analysis were performed on trunk-wash DNA preparations that had positive results for EEHV1.
Viral gene subtypes were compared with those associated with past fatal cases of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. It was used to detect EEHV1 in trunk secretions of 3 of the 5 elephants surveyed during the week period.
Viral gene subtyping analysis identified 2 distinct elephant herpesviruses, 1 of which was identical to the virus associated with a previous fatal case of herpesvirus-associated disease within the herd. Trunk secretions may provide a mode of transmission for this virus. Results of this study may be useful for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of EEHV1-associated disease and the overall management of captive elephant populations. We reviewed medical records documenting 28 pregnancies occurring within a herd of Asian elephants Elephas maximus over a yr period at a private facility in the southeastern United States.
Twenty-six pregnancies resulted in live calves and two ended in stillbirths. The 26 live births represented the offspring of 11 cows and 5 bulls. Twenty-four calves survived their first year, including two critically ill calves born after dystocias. Male and female calves occurred in almost equal numbers. Mean duration of labor in this group was 36 hr although the median duration was 13 hr. Although oxytocin was administered to several cows, parturition did not always immediately ensue.
Female fecundity ranged from calves while female age at parturition ranged from yr. Females delivered their first calves between 9 and 26 yr of age whereas bulls sired their first calves in their 20s, on average. This may reflect the intensive management of cows before, during, and after each pregnancy, the number of experienced multiparous cows, and the skill level of staff, most of whom had worked with each other and with this herd for many years.
The data presented here may assist facilities planning to breed Asian elephants. Nutritional evaluation of fodder, its preference and crop raiding by wild Asian elephant Elephas maximus in Sonitpur District of Assam, India. Full Text Available Aim: The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the nutritive value of fodder in natural habitat, cultivated crops and their preference by wild Asian elephant Elephas maximus in forest and non-forest areas in four seasons using field observation in Sonitpur District of Assam; since, there were frequent incidences of crop raiding by wild elephant leading to loss of property and human- elephant conflict.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in four seasons. The study included forest areas of Sonai-Rupai Wildlife Sanctuary, part of Nameri National Park and high human- elephant conflicted areas of non-forest near to the sanctuary and parks.
The consumed fodders were identified, collected and evaluated. The proximate composition was determined using AOAC Results: Total 39 different fodder species of 18 families including herbs, climber, grasses, paddy seeds, paddy saplings, plants and its leaves, bark, fruits, and roots were recorded to be utilized by elephants. The first three family of fodder that elephant relished more were Poaceae The crude protein content of fodder in all seasons, total ash content only in winter and post monsoon seasons and neutral detergent fiber content of fodder between forest and non-forest were significant p Elephants preferred to forage more on nutritionally rich fodder than poor natural fodder.
Incidence of crop raiding was more in post monsoon season could be due to availability of nutritionally rich fodder than the poor natural fodder and generally happened in the night. Conclusions: The study revealed that during post monsoon season, there were abundant nutritionally rich sources of cultivated crops than the fodder of natural habitat that might provoke the wild elephants to raid crops.
Poaceae shared a major portion of their diet. The findings will definitely help nutritionist, ecologist and policy makers to understand. Assessment of pregnancy status of Asian elephants Elephas maximus by measurement of progestagen and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces, using enzyme immunoassay EIA.
The study was to find patterns of progestagen progesterone and its metabolite and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations in serum and feces of pregnant Asian elephants Elephas maximus. The 5 female Asian domestic elephants were naturally mated until pregnancy. After that, blood and feces samples were collected monthly during pregnancy for progestagen, glucocorticoid and their metabolites analysis by enzyme immunoassay EIA.
The results showed the serum progestagen concentration during gestation was 2. Overall, serum progestagen concentration rose from the 1st month to reach peak in the 11th month, after which it declined to its lowest level in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Fecal progestagen concentration varied from 1. In general, fecal progestagen concentration increased from the 1st month to its highest level in the 12th month.
After this, it declined reaching its lowest point in the 22nd month of pregnancy. Glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentrations both in serum and feces fluctuated from low to medium throughout almost the entire pregnancy period and then rapidly increased around the last week before calving.
Our study suggests that this profile of progestagen and glucocorticoid hormones and their metabolite concentration levels in serum and feces can be used to assess the pregnancy status of Asian elephants. If serum and fecal progestagen concentrations were found in very low levels and glucocorticoid and their metabolite concentrations were found in very high levels, it was indicated that the cow elephant would calve within 7 days.
Bull elephants exhibit marked increases in testosterone secretion during musth, and studies have shown a heightened sensitivity of the testis to GnRH-stimulated testosterone production in musth compared to nonmusth males. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon after musth has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to evaluate LH and testosterone responses to GnRH challenge in nine adult Asian elephant Elephas maximus bulls during three periods relative to musth: premusth, postmusth, and nonmusth.
All bulls responded to GnRH, but not saline, with an increase in LH and testosterone during all three periods. The mean peak LH 1. Furthermore, although the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis is active throughout the year, the testis appears to be more responsive to LH in terms of testosterone production in the period leading up to musth, compared to the nonmusth and postmusth periods. This heightened sensitivity, perhaps as a result of LH receptor up-regulation, may prime the testis for maximal testosterone production, leading to the physiological and behavioral changes associated with musth.
Potential of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone vaccine to suppress musth in captive male Asian elephants Elephas maximus. Musth in adult bull elephants is a period of increased androgen concentrations ranging from a few weeks to several months.
For captive elephant bull management, musth presents a serious challenge because of the aggressive behavior of musth bulls toward people and other elephants. Full Text Available This study quantified social life events hypothesized to affect the welfare of zoo African and Asian elephants , focusing on animals that were part of a large multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional elephant welfare study in North America.
Age was calculated based on recorded birth dates and an age-based account of life event data for each elephant was compiled. These event histories included facility transfers, births and deaths of offspring, and births and deaths of non-offspring herd mates.
Each event was evaluated as a total number of events per elephant , lifetime rate of event exposure, and age at first event exposure. These were then compared across three categories: species African vs. Asian; sex male vs. Mean age distributions differed p elephants were 6 years younger than Asian elephants , males were 12 years younger than females, and captive-born elephants were 20 years younger than imported elephants.
In summarizing demographic and social life events of elephants in North American zoos, we found both qualitative and quantitative differences in the early lives of imported versus captive-born elephants that could have long-term welfare implications. Full Text Available Flying squad is an established strategy in the effort to resolve the conflict elephants in Tesso Nilo National Park. Flying squad utilizes trainedelephants to chase away wild elephants that come out the national park area.
The study aims to identify management training and daily behavior ofSumatran elephant. The elephant training curriculum consist of basic training, advanced training and exercise development by combined verbalcommands, visual, and physical. Percentage of ingestive behavior showed the highest value at noon, while percentage of shelter seeking and other behavior showed the highest valueat night. It caused the elephants do more displacement to get the food at noon.
Keywords: daily behavior, flying squad, focal animal sampling, sumatran elephant , training management. This study was conducted in three villages in September through December This study aimed to identify the perception and socio-economic characteristics of the community related to the conflict towards elephant conservation value.
Data was collected through structured interview, while respondents were selected intentionally purposive sampling. The majority of respondents are in productive age classes and worked as a farmer. Elephants disturbance occur in all respondent villages and has an impact on the community perception of the elephant conservation becomes negative.
Most respondents want that the elephants are relocated to Padang Sugihan Wildlife Sanctuary which is suitable for the habitat of the elephants. Statistical parametric mapping of the regional distribution and ontogenetic scaling of foot pressures during walking in Asian elephants Elephas maximus. Foot pressure distributions during locomotion have causal links with the anatomical and structural configurations of the foot tissues and the mechanics of locomotion.
Elephant feet have five toes bound in a flexible pad of fibrous tissue digital cushion. Does this specialized foot design control peak foot pressures in such giant animals? And how does body size, such as during ontogenetic growth, influence foot pressures? We addressed these questions by studying foot pressure distributions in elephant feet and their correlation with body mass and centre of pressure trajectories, using statistical parametric mapping SPM , a neuro-imaging technology.
Our results show a positive correlation between body mass and peak pressures, with the highest pressures dominated by the distal ends of the lateral toes digits 3, 4 and 5. We also demonstrate that pressure reduction in the elephant digital cushion is a complex interaction of its viscoelastic tissue structure and its centre of pressure trajectories, because there is a tendency to avoid rear 'heel' contact as an elephant grows. We hope that our study will build confidence in the potential clinical and scaling applications of mammalian foot pressures, given our findings in support of a link between regional peak pressures and pathogenesis in elephant feet.
Its objective was to investigate the impediments to elephant movement in the Nilgiri Hills, in the Western Ghats of India, in an attempt to suggest positive steps to encourage movement through the provision of corridors. The report was left unpublished, but given its importance as a reference document for the conservation of the Asian elephant in the Nilgiris, in the last two authors decided to publish it.
The process of habitat fragmentation has been going on ever since man started agriculture. But this problem has, of late, become much more acute due to mounting pressure on land. The corridor concept applied to wildlife is the provision of a free and, as far as possible, unimpeded way for the passage of wild animals between two wildlife zones. Maintaining elephant habitat connectivity in and around the Nilgiris rests upon the understanding that elephant populations of the several protected areas of the now Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve must remain active.
The first author surveyed the Nilgiris on foot and on elephant back for several months in It was concluded that four areas the Nilgiri north slopes and Deccan Plateau, the south and southeastern slopes, the Gudalur Plateau, and the upper plateau harboured together 10 corridors that needed to be maintained, or restored, or even partially restored.
Effect of alternate day collection on semen quality of Asian elephants Elephas maximus with poor initial fresh semen quality. Imrat, P. In captivity, male Asian elephants often yield poor quality semen after transrectal manually assisted semen collection; however, the reasons for the disappointing semen quality are not clear.
Here we test the hypothesis that accumulation of senescent spermatozoa is a contributory factor, and that. Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to monitoring natural food of Sumatran elephant ; determine rank taxonomy of species, and to give information quantitative value of taxa for vegetation analysis. The data was collected by transect and quadratic plot method. The observed area it was took 10 transect with m of long for observed station.
Each observed station was put seven and ten plot samples systematically. Each plot samples has a 5 m2 of width. The result indicated that there were 69 species of the plant including 23 families. Diversity index was between 1. The importance value is relatively low on all station observed.
The refer of importance value show that Oplismenus burmanii, Imperata cylindrica, Crassocephalum crepidiodes, Mimosa pudica, and Zingiber aquosum were dominated on secondary forest and Zingiber zerumbet, Zingiber purpureum, and Oplismenus burmanii were dominated on primary forest. Physiological stress responses in wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus in a human-dominated landscape in the Western Ghats, southern India.
Increasing anthropogenic pressures on forests, especially in the tropical regions of the world, have restricted several large mammalian species such as the Asian elephant to fragmented habitats within human-dominated landscapes.
In this study, we assessed the effects of an anthropogenic landscape and its associated conflict with humans on the physiological stress responses displayed by Asian elephants in the Anamalai Hills of the Western Ghats mountains in south India.
We have quantified faecal glucocorticoid metabolite FGM concentrations in focal individual elephants within and across herds, inhabiting both anthropogenic and natural habitats, and evaluated their physiological responses to different socio-ecological situations between November and April Physiological stress responses varied significantly among the tested elephant age- and sex categories but not across different types of social organisation.
Adults generally showed higher FGM concentrations, even in the absence of stressors, than did any other age category. Males also appeared to have higher stress responses than did females. Although there was no significant variation in mean stress levels between elephants on the plateau in the absence of human interactions and those in adjacent, relatively undisturbed forest habitats, FGM concentrations increased significantly for adult and subadult individuals as well as for calves following drives, during which elephants were driven off aggressively by people.
Our study emphasises the general importance of understanding individual variation in physiology and behaviour within a population of a seriously threatened mammalian species, the Asian elephant , and specifically highlights the need for long-term monitoring of the stress physiology and behavioural responses of individual elephants across both human-dominated and natural landscapes. Such studies would not only provide comprehensive insights into the adaptive biology of elephants in changing.
A comparative haematological analysis of Asian Elephants Elephas maximus Linnaeus, Mammalia: Proboscidea: Elephantidae managed under different captive conditions in Sri Lanka. Full Text Available Haematological parameters were assessed from elephants of three institutions in Sri Lanka with different captive conditions, in order to evaluate if different captive conditions influence the physiology of the animals.
All animals were sampled on four consecutive days. PCV , blood glucose levels and monocyte counts were also shown to be significantly different among the three groups Kruskal-Wallis P less than 0. We suggest that differences in the stress levels associated with the different management methods might influence these haematological values. This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant , pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand.
Data were gathered from venues through direct observations and interviews with staff. Factors such as freedom of movement for the animals, access to veterinary care, environmental noise quality, hygiene standards and work intensity were included in the score sheet.
A strong imbalance in female to male gender ratios was recorded with about for adult elephants and for adult macaques. This study is the first to assess welfare aspects of captive wild animals at tourism venues across Thailand. It concludes that significant concerns exist about the welfare of wild animals in the tourism sector of Thailand. Urgent attention needs to be given to address these concerns and prevent further suffering. Full Text Available This study focused on determining the size and welfare aspects of Asian elephant , pig-tailed macaque and tiger populations at facilities open to tourists in Thailand.
A score sheet-based welfare assessment was used to calculate scores between 1 and 10, indicating each venue's welfare situation. But also to ensure the demand for wild animals doesn't have a negative impact on wild populations. Full Text Available Seed dispersal plays a potential role in plant species demographic processes. Elephants are important seed-dispersing agents. We studied frugivory and seed dispersal by Asian Elephants in the tropical deciduous and thorn forests of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, southern India.
We determined fruit consumption based on the presence of seeds and fruit remnants in elephant dung piles. Coinciding with a peak fruiting season in the study area, seeds and other fruit parts appeared in the dung piles significantly more frequently during the dry season than in the wet seasons southwest and northeast monsoons. Owing to differences in fruit species abundance in different habitats, there was more evidence of fruit consumption in the dry thorn than in the dry and moist deciduous forests.
This corresponds with insufficient grass availability in thorn forests during the dry season and an increase in browse consumption as a supplementary diet. Seeds of Tamarindus indica and Acacia intsia were found in elephant dung more frequently than other species. Seed and fruit remnants were found in almost an equal number of dung piles of both bulls and herds. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among captive Asian Elephants Elephas maximus : effect of season, host demography, and management systems in Tamil Nadu, India.
Full Text Available Maintenance of wild animals in captivity is fraught with numerous challenges, including the control of disease. This study evaluates the effect of season, host demography age-sex, and differing management systems on the prevalence of intestinal parasites among elephants managed in three captive systems: temple, private, and forest department, in Tamil Nadu. In addition, the study also assessed the availability of veterinary care for elephants in these systems.
The difference in the proportion of animals with parasitic prevalence among the three systems could be due to differing management practices i. However, activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis before or soon. We tested the null hypothesis that the causes of elephant deaths would not differ with time, by gender and with level of protection. The causes of death differed by region. In conclusion, the elephant population in the Nilgiris is at risk and needs stringent protection; the mortality database should be systematised; forensic capabilities upgraded, and detection of carcasses improved.
Full Text Available A study was carried out in Manas National Park, Assam in northeastern India between and to understand the magnitude of human- elephant conflict through a quantification of damage and assessment of economic loss. A cluster of six villages adjacent to the Park was selected for this study. Five major agricultural crops were grown during the study period of which three were raided by elephants : winter paddy, autumn paddy and pulses. Winter paddy was the most cultivated crop and autumn paddy was the least cultivated.
The incidence rate of crop raiding was highest for autumn paddy and lowest for pulses. Overall economic loss due to crop raiding was negligible, however at the individual farmer level, it was quite high. The study revealed that human- elephant conflict is not so severe, indicating ample opportunity for human- elephant coexistence in the region. Crop fields adjacent to the Park were particularly vulnerable to crop raiding which necessitates creation of a buffer zone.
The frequency of raiding and the extent of damage was found to be significantly less in crop fields which were guarded by farmers. This was due to traditional crop guarding practices being followed in the region, the strengthening of which could effectively reduce annual crop loss and thus human- elephant conflict could be minimized to a large extent. Fatal elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 and -4 co-infection in a juvenile Asian elephant in Europe.
Introduction Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus-1 EEHV-1 is one of the major causes of fatality in juvenile Asian elephants Elephas maximus. On occasions, other EEHV genotypes, i. EEHV-3, -4 and -5, have also been reported as the cause of Asian elephant deaths. In this case report we Problem- elephant translocation: translocating the problem and the elephant? Translocating "problem- elephants " is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually.
In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: "homers" returned to the capture site, "wanderers" ranged widely, and "settlers" established home ranges in new areas soon after release.
Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals. Elephant reproduction: improvement of breeding efficiency and development of a breeding strategy.
The efficiency of reproduction of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus has become of major concern. Captive breeding programs worldwide have met with limited success and few ex situ elephant populations are self-sustaining. The low birth rate and high mortality cause the captive population to. Full Text Available First described in , this rather unusual insect has been found to be a common ectoparasite on the Indian elephant Elephas maximus , and has been collected in low numbers from the African elephant Loxodonta africana in nearly all of sub-saharan Africa Ledger , The arthropod parasites of vertebrates in Africa south of the Sahara Ethiopian Region Vol.
Elephants - a conservation overview. Full Text Available Loss of habitat is one of the most significant problems facing elephants worldwide, leading to clashes over resources between wildlife and humans where elephants receive the largest part of blame - defined as Human Elephant Conflict HEC. The sub-Saharan region of Africa contains an approximate population of , elephants that occupy 37 range countries. The Red List of Threatened Species categorizes the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus as endangered, and today they are found in 13 range states.
Due to threats of poaching, the elephant ivory debate has been an important part of recent meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora CITES as Parties have debated proposals for one-time sales of legal government stockpiles of elephant tusks. To maintain elephant populations into the future, long-term and large-scale planning is necessary to ensure adequate space and protection for elephants and people living in elephant habitats.
Related to the function of the sumatran elephants in Flying Squad as the patrol team, it is necessary to conduct a proper management to ensure animal welfare. This study aims to examine the aspects of welfare management and asses the level of welfare of sumatran elephants in Flying Squad. The research methodology used for this study are literature review, interviews and field observation.
Data analyzed by describing the suitability of management and tabulating the assessment. The management of cages, feed, health and reproduction requires some improvements such as the type, number and equipment of the cages, natural feed adequacy, medical infrastructure and reproduction management. Keywords: animal welfare, flying squad, the patrol elephant. Spectrum of antibody profiles in tuberculous elephants , cervids, and cattle. The findings demonstrate distinct patterns of predominant antigen recognition by different animal hosts in tuberculosis.
Insightful problem solving in an Asian elephant. Full Text Available The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Spontaneous problem solving without evident trial and error behavior in humans and other animals has been referred to as insight. Surprisingly, elephants , thought to be highly intelligent, have failed to exhibit insightful problem solving in previous cognitive studies.
We tested whether three Asian elephants Elephas maximus would use sticks or other objects to obtain food items placed out-of-reach and overhead. Without prior trial and error behavior, a 7-year-old male Asian elephant showed spontaneous problem solving by moving a large plastic cube, on which he then stood, to acquire the food.
In further testing he showed behavioral flexibility, using this technique to reach other items and retrieving the cube from various locations to use as a tool to acquire food. In the cube's absence, he generalized this tool utilization technique to other objects and, when given smaller objects, stacked them in an attempt to reach the food. The elephant 's overall behavior was consistent with the definition of insightful problem solving.
Previous failures to demonstrate this ability in elephants may have resulted not from a lack of cognitive ability but from the presentation of tasks requiring trunk-held sticks as potential tools, thereby interfering with the trunk's use as a sensory organ to locate the targeted food.
Monitoring and controlling ovarian activity in elephants. Both Asian Elephas maximus and African Loxodonta africana elephants are important keystone, umbrella and flagship species. Paradoxically, world population numbers of both species are declining in many of their natural ranges due mainly to poaching, while over population of elephants in some areas is resulting in serious human- elephant conflict, and modifications of natural habitats that impact biodiversity.
Understanding mechanisms of reproductive control is vital to effective population management, and for that reason significant advances have been made in endocrine and ultrasonographic monitoring techniques, particularly in studies of elephants ex situ. However, there remains a need to develop new methods to control ovarian activity, both for enhancing and inhibiting reproduction, to maintain population numbers at levels that ensure species survival and their ability to safely cohabitate with humans and other species.
We present an overview of reproductive monitoring methods and how they have contributed to our knowledge of elephant reproductive biology, as well as their application for in situ and ex situ conservation purposes. The "aha" moment or the sudden arrival of the solution to a problem is a common human experience. Erratum to: Elephants also like coffee: Trends and drivers of human- elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. The forests of the district harbour a large population of the Asian elephant Elephas maximus.
The combined effects of high elephant density and major landscape changes due to the expansion of coffee cultivation are the cause of human- elephant conflicts HEC. Mitigation strategies, including electric fences and compensation schemes implemented by the Forest Department have met with limited success. Building on previous studies in the area, we assessed current spatial and temporal trends of conflict, analysed local stakeholders' perceptions and identified factors driving elephants into the estates.
Conflict maps and the lack of correlation between physical features of the coffee plantations and elephant visits suggest elephants move along corridors between the eastern and western forests of the district, opportunistically foraging when crossing the plantations. Dung analyses indicate elephants have selectively included ripe coffee berries in their diet.
This is, to our knowledge, the first report of wild elephants feeding on coffee berries. If this new behaviour spreads through the population, it will compound an already severe conflict situation. The behavioural plasticity, the multiplicity of stakeholders involved, the difficulty in defining the problem and the limits of technical solutions already proposed suggest that HEC in Kodagu has the ingredients of a "wicked" problem whose resolution will require more shared understanding and problem solving work amongst the stakeholders.
Elephants also like coffee: trends and drivers of human- elephant conflicts in coffee agroforestry landscapes of Kodagu, Western Ghats, India. Full Text Available Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future.
The marked elephant and presumably her 40—60 herd mates used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types.
When elephants fall asleep: A literature review on elephant rest with case studies on elephant falling bouts, and practical solutions for zoo elephants. Little attention has been paid to the resting and sleeping behavior of zoo elephants so far. An important concern is when elephants avoid lying down, due to degenerative joint and foot disease, social structure, or stressful environmental changes.
Inability or unwillingness to lie down for resting is an important welfare issue, as it may impair sleep. We emphasize the importance of satisfying rest in elephants by reviewing the literature on resting behavior in elephants Loxodonta africana and Elephas maximus as well as the documentation of four cases from European zoos and our own direct observations in a zoo group of four female African elephants during 12 entire days. The common denominator in the case reports is the occurrence of a falling bout out of a standing position subsequently to a cessation of lying rest for different periods of time.
Although well-known in horses as "episodic collapse" or "excessive drowsiness," this syndrome has not been described in elephants before. To enable its detection, we recommend nocturnal video monitoring for elephant -keeping institutions. The literature evaluation as well as own observational data suggest an inverse relationship between lying rest and standing rest. Preventative measures consist of enclosure modifications that facilitate lying rest e. Anecdotal observations suggest that the provision of appropriate horizontal environmental structures may encourage safe, sleep-conducive standing rest.
We provide drawings on how to install such structures. Effects of providing such structures should be evaluated in the future. Demographic variables for wild Asian elephants using longitudinal observations. Detailed demographic data on wild Asian elephants have been difficult to collect due to habitat characteristics of much of the species' remaining range.
Such data, however, are critical for understanding and modeling population processes in this endangered species. This relatively undisturbed population numbering over one thousand elephants is individually monitored, providing cohort-based information on mortality and reproduction. Reproduction was seasonal, such that most births occurred during the long inter-monsoon dry season and peaked in May. During the study, the average age at first reproduction was Birth sex ratios did not deviate significantly from parity.
Fecundity was relatively stable throughout the observed reproductive life of an individual ages , averaging between 0. Mortalities and injuries based on carcasses and disappearances showed that males were significantly more likely than females to be killed or injured through anthropogenic activity. Overall, however, most observed injuries did not appear to be fatal. Money and freedom is the best way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide other people. Way cool! Some extremely valid points!
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Ada juga setengah lingkaran angka tersebut yakni 1, 2, 3 dan 4. Semua setengah lingkaran tersebut bisa kamu temukan baik dari atas, bawah, kiri dan kanan. Masih banyak hal-hal dan Rumus Rolet yang bisa kalian coba dan begitu sederhana untuk dijalankan ketika bermain permainan judi roulette ini.
Untuk permainan Roulette anda harus pintar dalam memilih dan membaca History taruhannya agar modal yang anda punyai tidak habis dengan sia — sia. Karena untuk permainan Roulette kemenangannya adalah untuk menang ataupun kalah. Anda tidak hanya harus siap untuk menang tetapi anda harus siap jika anda kalah juga nantinya. Untuk itu anda harus sangat siap jika anda ingin mencoba Taruhan Roulette ini. Anda akan benar benar menikmati permainan ini menang ataupun kalah nantinya.
Anda harus tetap pada salah satu Trik yang akan kami berikan berikut ini : Black and Red Genap dan Ganjil dan Cara untuk mempraktekkan Rumus jitu bermain roulette sangatlah mudah. Intinya adalah jika taruhan anda kalah maka pasanglah 2 kali lipat jumlah yang anda pasang sebelumnya. Contoh: Anda memasang taruhan Rp Untuk itu anda juga harus membutuhkan modal yang sedikit lebih banyak untuk menang terus pada Taruhan Roulette Online ini.
Tapi hal ini akan sebanding dengan jumlah kemenangan anda nantinya yang akan sangat banyak juga,. Contoh I : Empat nomor-nomor terakhir adalah: 20, 3, 18 dan 7. Contoh 2 : Empat nomor-nomor terakhir adalah 20, 10, 8 dan Ketika anda menang 3 sampai 4 kali segeralah berhenti bermain dari meja anda dan pindah ke meja lainnya sehingga Trik anda tersebut tidak akan terdeteksi.
Pasanglah bet pada nomor yang sama sampai keluar angka tersebut dengan maksimal 8 kali putaran.
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