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Also a play by Peter Shaffer with unusual lighting requirements. Blue working lights backstage should remain on and are not usually under the control of the board, except during a Dead Blackout DBO , when there is no onstage light. Exit signs and other emergency lighting must remain on at all times. Used for masking offstage and technical areas.

Running Blacks are full stage width black tabs with a split half way, which are usually fitted to a tab track so that they can be opened and closed horizontally AND flown in and out. The tab track control can either be operated from stage level or from a fly floor when they're flown out. Hard Blacks are black-covered scenic flats used as masking. A Full Stage Black is a black cloth which can be flown in and is the full width of the stage.

This is used to go upstage of a gauze to make transformation scenes work effectively, or can be used as a neutral backing for carefully lit scenes downstage. Blacks flown vertically at the edge of the stage are known as LEGS. Also known as a Drama Cube or a Rehearsal Cube. Positions at the start of scenes are noted, as are all movements around the stage using terms such as 'Gardener X DSL' meaning the Gardener crosses to downstage left. It must be described in minute detail, but simple enough to enable anyone to read and understand it.

As well as being used to 'run the show' the prompt book is also used for the rehearsal of the understudies. Stages which are not end-on must often use alternative notation, sometimes based on the clock face or the points of a compass. Blocking Notation. See also working lights. The sung text is called the Libretto. Strictly, a bounce is a white or light blue cloth onto which light is bounced to backlight another cloth.

A bounce doesn't need to be seamless, whereas a cyclorama should be. When taking curtain calls, the Stage Manager would instruct the head flyman 'On the Bounce Please' for all calls prior to the final call, which was always 'Hand over Hand', i. Describes the mixing down of multiple sounds from different tracks onto one track, hence freeing up the other tracks to be re-used. It allowed many sounds to be recorded onto one tape. The term now refers to the digital equivalent - taking multiple audio tracks and mixing them together at their set levels onto a single pair of tracks.

BRAIL A horizontal rope, wire or chain attached at either end of a piece of scenery or lighting bar pulling it upstage or downstage of its naturally hanging position to allow another flying item to pass, or to improve its position. In a hemp house, to 'Brail' a static piece a single dead line was put round the 'short' and 'long' line to move the piece to a new position.

A running brail was a breast which allowed the flown piece still to fly in or out, in its new position. More available at the link below. More on Break A Leg. Breakaway furniture and some props are usually capable of restoration to be 'broken' again. Breakaway Links at Theatrecrafts. BREAST LINE A form of brail running horizontally across the width of the stage, passed across the fly bars' suspension lines and attached at the fly floors to brail the scenery up or down stage, to create a larger space between adjacent pieces.

BRIDGE 1 A walkway, giving access to technical and service areas above the stage or auditorium, or linking fly-floors. British Sign Language website. BUSINESS A piece of unscripted or improvised action, often comic in intention, used to establish a character, fill a pause in dialogue, or to establish a scene. An author may simply suggest 'business' to indicate the need for some action at that point in the play. A video relay system, used in the theatre to give a view of the stage to remote technical operators especially stage managers.

Also used to give musical performers a view of the conductor and vice versa to help in keeping time. It's called Closed Circuit because the signal is not being broadcast anywhere - there's a direct link between camera and monitor. Depending on the size of the cable current carrying capacity , cables are used to supply individual lanterns, whole dimmer racks, or carry signals from a microphone etc.

Using a computer to help with 2D plans and drawings, or increasingly for 3D visualisation of how a set will look, and how lighting will affect it. A 'Company Call' means the full cast and crew are called for the rehearsal. The term became obsolete in the s when theatres began to use show relay systems to feed the sound of the show to dressing rooms, and to give calls direct from the stage management desk. Being 'on the book' involves verbally giving the 'GO' cues to all technical departments lighting, sound, flies, automation, av etc.

The cues are written in the prompt script. Prior to 'Beginners' the stage is the domain of the stage crew for setting up etc. After 'Beginners', the stage is the actors domain. On a production with a large orchestra, the first 'Members of the Orchestra' Call is for the 'Strings' sections to tune up together, the second call is for the remainder of the orchestra to join them in the pit. The Cue for the Overture to commence is given from the corner, by means of a cue light.

The Half hour , the quarter hour , five minutes as well as Overture Beginners, are all given five minutes earlier than the actual call as named. CAMEO An appearance in a small role in a play, television programme or film by a well-known performer.

Celebrities sometimes take cameo roles in projects for their friends, or as a mark of respect to the creative team. CANS 1 Headset earpiece, microphone and beltpack used for communication and co-ordination of technical departments during a performance. As many of the technical operators are tied to expensive pieces of equipment, headsets are often wired. However, stage management and any other crew who move around often wear wireless versions, often known as radio cans.

There are interfaces between wired and wireless versions enabling both to be part of the same system. Many headset systems have multiple channels, enabling different sub-groups to communicate separately. Also called 'Comms' short for Communications - the same phrases can be used e.

Calls and Cans. CAST The members of the acting company. The Cast List contains the names of the actors and the characters they'll be playing. Dramatis Personae is a Latin term for a list of the characters in a play. The performers tend to be treated as cattle and kept together in a large room and called in groups to audition.

The Broadway musical "A Chorus Line" depicts such an audition. Marked as CL on stage plans. Normally marked on the stage floor and used as a reference when marking out or assembling a set. A chalked snap line can be used to mark the line in the rehearsal room and on stage.

A legal requirement when working with children and a relief for the stage management team! CHEAT An actor movement or lighting change which happens without the audience being aware of it, or a change to improve the situation even though it may not be totally natural e.

See the link below for more. More about Chewing the Scenery. Members of a claque are called claqueurs. Used for cleaning and setting up the auditorium before the house lights usually more atmospheric are switched on. Announced as 'We have Front of House Clearance'. Often marked out with measurements to aid the levelling or deading of the bottom of a flown drape or masking. CLEAT Piece of timber or metal for tying off a rope line by taking a turn around it, followed by a series of figure eight turns and a locking tuck s made in the final turn.

Used when flying or for holding scenic pieces together with a cleat line. Submitted by Chris Higgs. It was a challenge to any member of the stage crew to throw the 'cleat line' over the top hook ' in one' i. Many a pint has been won, with the challenge 'bet you a pint you can't throw it in one! CLEW A ring of metal which is used to join several flying lines or wires to a single pulling wire.

Although some amateur groups enjoy playing pranks on each other on the last night, this should not happen in professional theatre - audiences that have paid for the performance should be given the same performance each time, and not run the risk of the performance falling apart because the cast are making each other laugh. A tightly rehearsed performance, involving moving scenery, flying items, complex choreography, rehearsad stage combat etc risks hurting or injuring performers or worse if the rehearsed sequences are deviated from.

CLOTH A piece of scenic canvas, painted or plain, that is flown or fixed to hang in a vertical position. It is suspended from a bar or batten above the stage and can usually be flown up or down out or in, in theatre terminology to bring it into view of the audience. A Backcloth or Backdrop hangs at the rear of a scene. A Floorcloth is a painted canvas sheet placed on the stage floor to mark out the acting area, or to achieve a particular effect.

A Frontcloth hangs well downstage, often to hide a scene change taking place behind. Cut cloths have cut-away open areas and are normally used as a series, painted in perspective. A Star Cloth also Star Drop or Starcloth usually black has a large number of small low-voltage lamps sewn or pinned through it which gives a magical starry sky effect.

In the US, a cloth is known as a Drop from backdrop. In Spanish, a flown cloth is a Bambalina. In German, a floor cloth is a Bodentuch. Including performances by sometimes all of the technical staff and usually none of the actual cast, the panto is written and rehearsed towards the end of the run and is performed in the last few days of the panto, and is often followed by a party.

Jokes refer to any incidents during the run of the show, and send everything up with no holds barred. See also GO UP. In Greek and Roman theatre, any play with a happy ending was called a comedy, regardless of whether it was funny. High Comedy also known as pure or highbrow comedy is a type of comedy characterized by witty dialogue, satire, biting humor, or criticism of life.

Low Comedy also known as lowbrow humour is more physical comedy, using slapstick or farce, with no purpose other than to cause the audience to laugh. Free of charge ticket issued to company members or special guests. There are often House Comps, which are good seats not sold to the public until others are sold out, which are used for VIP guests. In a building-based theatre company, the role is more administrative, dealing with payroll and other matters connected with the cast and crew of the current production s.

See also Production Stage Manager. See also Trunking. Also used to add weight to the bottom of a flown cloth. Many live event construction projects e. UK Health and Safety Executive website. Large-scale productions have to continue wherever possible to avoid having to give the audience refunds.

So if a small piece of the set fails to work or gets stuck particularly automated scenery the cast and crew will have rehearsed an alternative choreography to work around it while the crew repair it. For example in The Lord of the Rings The Musical in London, when the revolving stage with multiple lifts had a safety sensor triggered, the automation went into 'E-Stop' mode, a thunderclap sound effect was triggered, the stage lifts went to a flat floor once it had been found safe to do so and the actors for the next scene were rushed into new positions, while the actors on stage immediately adopted a new choreography.

It's vital that contingencies are worked out in advance so that as soon as something goes wrong, the show can continue, and the audience will hopefully be unaware. The control room is usually soundproofed from the auditorium so that communications between operators cannot be heard by the audience.

A large viewing window is obviously essential, as is a show relay system so that the performance can be heard by the operators. Obviously if sound is being mixed, the operator should be able to hear the same as the audience, so some control rooms have sliding or removable windows, or a completely separate room for sound mixing. Where possible, the sound desk is moved into the auditorium so that the operator can hear the same as the audience. Also known as the BOX.

Sometimes a 'wiggle pin' or corrugated fastener was hammered into the joint before the plate was glued and nailed in place. John Toogood, when the junior apprentice in the workshop, made these plates by the dozen for the 'boss' Roger "Two Hammers" Winkley, one to cool down while he used the other! There are numerous ways of covering the laughter, mostly involving the actor turning away from the audience and covering his mouth with his hand.

Some British pantomimes have an outbreak of rehearsed corpsing, when something appears to go wrong, but is in fact carefully planned. This helps to lift the audience's spirits and make the show seem more alive. Requires employers to prevent or reduce their workers' exposure to substances that are hazardous to their health. As well as dangerous chemicals and solvents, COSHH also covers ANY substance that is hazardous, including dust particles in a set-building environment.

Known in the US as an Arbor. The stage management team, Production Manager, set-building team etc are part of the Production Team, not the main Creatives. And that is where the problems arise. All members of the team that put on the show, including the cast, are ALL creative, not just those seen as closest to the director. It's best to avoid the term if possible, and stick to job titles, rather than drawing lines between levels of seniority.

Stage Crew: Members of the stage management team who are based on the stage and help with scene changes, props and furniture. Stage Crew also known as Stagehands are often employed on a casual basis for a specific production, and may not be part of the theatre's full-time staff.

They also may be touring with a particular production. The shackles are known as Crosby Clips. Crosby Group website. A Counter-Cross is a move made by another actor to even out the stage picture. A Straight Cross is a move directly across the stage in a straight line.

Sometimes abbreviated to Xfade or XF. Some sound mixers especially those for DJs have a cross-fader - a single fader which can be used to fade one music source out while simultaneously fading the next one in. Different speakers handle high frequencies tweeters and low frequencies woofers. Sometimes known as a crossover network. An active crossover splits the signal from the mixing desk into high, mid and low frequencies which are then sent to three separate amplifiers.

CUE 1 The command given to technical departments to carry out a particular operation. Normally given by stage management, but may be taken directly from the action i. Quick - Hide! Cues given verbally may be known as 'audible cues', although as this is the normal type of cues, they're usually just called 'Cues'. Cues that technical operators take themselves, without an audible cue, are known as Visual Cues.

Cue lights ensure greater precision when visibility or audibility of actors is limited. Sometimes used for cueing actors onto the set. For technical cues, lights are normally now used just as a backup to cues given over the headset system. In the UK, a flashing Red light means stand-by or warn, green light means go. In the US, a red light means warn, and when the light goes off, it means GO. The UK system seems to be more secure, but it depends what you're used to.

A tabulated list of actions that must be taken by a technical department at a particular point in the show. Cues are numbered, and called by the DSM on the book from the prompt script. We'll pick it up from Simon's line "And from then on it was all downhill" in a moment. OK - we're all set - when you're ready please. Hungarian: tapsrend. Often replaced with a recorded announcement 'Good Evening Ladies and Gentlemen and welcome to the insert name Theatre.

May I remind you to please switch off mobile phones and pagers as they can prove distracting to other members of the audience and the performers. Flash photography is also not permitted. We hope you enjoy the show! An alternative call is "Lights Up on Act One".

This is followed by a break for last-minute adjustments before the actual shoot takes place. CYC STRETCHER A wooden block with a tightenable bolt through it, threaded-through by a rope, used to clamp to the offstage edges of a cyclorama cloth with the rope tied to an offstage fixing, ideally above head-height. Enables wrinkles in the cloth to be removed, and also helps to minimise cloth movements caused by air currents doors opening, actors walking past etc. The Cyclorama is a curved plain cloth or plastered wall filling the rear of the stage or TV studio.

Often used as a sky backing to a traditional set, or as the main backing for a dance piece etc. The term is often loosely applied to a blue skycloth, or any flattage at the rear of the stage. Although strictly a cyc should be curved, most cycs are flat with curved wraparound ends. A more effective backing can be obtained by hanging a sharkstooth gauze just in front of the plain white cyc which gives a hazy effect of distance.

From Greek Cyclos circle and Horama view or vision. The German equivalent term is operafolie. Dance floor should be left to adjust to room temperature before being taped otherwise it will not lay flat. Many different types of floor are available, including different colours and degrees of cushioning, and the product may be known by it's manufacturer's name e.

Marley Floor, Harlequin Floor. German: Tanzteppich. It covers similar ground to the Americans with Disabilities Act, which became law in DEAD 1 A pre-plotted height for a piece of scenery or lighting bar - 'that bar's on its dead'. Sometimes flying pieces are given a number of extra deads, that may be colour coded, in addition to the 'in dead' lower and 'out dead' higher - out of view.

Fluorescent ribbon is often used, through the fibres of the rope. The fluorescent colour shows very clearly under UV light, which is often used to light fly floors. This is a handle that has to be squeezed by a technician in order for a pre-programmed automation sequence to take place.

If for any reason the relevant technician is not in position, the system does not allow the sequence to run. It's the job of the lighting or sound designers to ensure the show can be run reliably every night, in discussion with stage management. If there are lots of cues running in a short period of time, it may be better to simplify them, or make them timed auto-follows, or run them from timecode, to avoid 'death by cues'.

The DSM is often also in rehearsal working with the director to prepare the prompt book. Known in some places as a Stage Director. German: Inspizient. A mechanical device used in Greek classical and medieval drama to lower an actor playing God from the flies above the stage to resolve the conflict in a play.

The term sometimes refers to a character which has a similar function in a more modern drama. DIGS Colloquial term for short-term accommodation for actors during the run of a show. Originally short for diggings, the term appeared in the UK publication The Stage in A shot filmed in such a way is known as a Dolly Shot.

For example, 'Pass me the doofer so I can sort this thingy'. DOUBLE A member of the cast or crew who appears on stage in place of the leading actor for a particular moment or sequence, either because the lead actor is doing a costume-change, or is in a different part of the venue at the time. A double is also used for some illusion sequences where the lead actor 'magically' appears to have moved an impossible distance in a short space of time.

See also Stunt Performer. It's called Downstage because it's the lowest part of a raked stage. Downstage Left, Downstage Centre and Downstage Right are commonly used for the areas towards the front of the stage. This brings them closer to the audience and directs the audience to pay more attention to them.

It's important that the DSM does not shout out the next line, while the lead actor is pausing dramatically. A 2 to 3 hour timeslot can cover the same amount of dramatic time when the action of the play occurs in 2 to 3 hours or it can cover a hundred years or anywhere in between. See also TABS. The water prevents it buckling as it descends. Any defects, misfits etc.

Also known as a Costume Parade. The performance as it will be 'on the night'. German: hauptprobe final rehearsal. DRIFT 1 The effective travelling distance of a suspension barrel between the lowest it can reach with the scenic piece attached and the underside of the grid. The drift will be variable depending on the depth of a scenic piece suspended beneath the barrel. Petal Drop, Leaf Drop etc.

Also known as a Cane Bolt. The lid usually opens downwards, and can be secured by a hinge pin. The pin can be pulled out with a piece of string through a small loop or eye, which stops the pin being lost. An electric release can also be used, involving an electromagnetic device called a solenoid to either pull out the pin. DRY 1 An actor forgetting the words of his script. Recording with an effect is recording 'wet'. Also known as a Dry Tech. Refers to the area nearest the audience on stage right.

Prompt side or PS is stage left. Masking tape works well. See PLAN. In the US, the term "elevation" refers to a Front elevation. A Rear elevation shows backs of scenic elements. A side view of a set is known as a "section". Emergency Lighting systems should be checked regularly as required by local licencing authorities. It's especially important to consider power cuts when using non-theatre spaces especially outdoor spaces for performances. This usually applies to music concerts or stand-up comedy shows, where the performer will have an extra song or routine ready if there is a lot of applause.

From the French which means "again" or "more". END ON Traditional audience seating layout where the audience is looking at the stage from the same direction. This seating layout is that of a Proscenium Arch theatre. Also known as Proscenium Staging. The end-on stage can be split into 9 areas: upstage right, upstage centre, upstage left, centre stage right, centre stage, centre stage left, downstage right, downstage centre, downstage left.

As the definition of 'live events or experiences' includes music concerts, theatre, theme parks, visitor attractions, museums and sports events, the skills needed are very broad. It's not necessary for anyone to be highly skilled in all of the crafts, but an understanding of the whole picture is very helpful, and knowing when to call in a specialist and where to find them is vital. The crafts involved in entertainment technology include, but are not limited to: Lighting stage lighting and architectural lighting Sound live and recorded Video and Media projection or display Scenic Construction and Automation Show Control Animatronics Costume Props and Masks Make-Up and Prosthetics.

Often used now to describe any interval music. The entrance of the ghost is upstage left, The bishop enters downstage right. The trade union of actors, directors, designers and stage managers. More on Ghost Light. The Equity Showcase status requires that the production is a limited run and has a small production budget.

Actors should be, at the minimum, reimbursed expenses, and any volunteering should have benefits free workshops and producers should make every effort to get publicity and agents to see the show. Casting an Equity Showcase. Used to indicate that more than one person leaves the stage. The direction for a single person is simply Exit.

EXIT 1 A part of the set through which actors can leave the stage. The fireman exits downstage right. The character being pursued is Antigonus, a lord of Sicilia, who has been ordered to abandon the baby Princess Perdita. Exit signs must remain visible to the audience at all times, and local venue licencing laws will cover whether it must be illuminated at all times, and the size of the sign etc.

New legislation in Europe means that the word 'EXIT' has been removed from these signs to be replaced by 'Running Man', known more politically correctly as 'Person moving purposefully'. Term originally derived from the film industry. Used to reduce the size of the opening when putting a small set onto a large stage. For example to allow trucks guided by tracks cut into this false floor, to be moved by steel wires running in the shallow 2 or 3 inch void between the false floor and the original stage floor.

A false stage is also required for putting a revolve onto a stage. Available in multi-circuit form so that the lamps can be 'chased'. Works intensively with actors training them how to avoid hitting and hurting each other, how to use weapons safely etc. Fight directors are highly skilled and trained and should not be substituted for someone 'who once saw Gladiator' and thinks they can repeat it!! Society of American Fight Directors Fightdirector.

FIRE EXIT Particular exit s from a building designated by local authority fire officer to be the correct means of escape from a part of the building in case of fire. It is the responsibility of all staff and performers to ensure that all fire exits are kept clear, unlocked and accessible at all times.

Another great leap forward!. Many scenic materials require regular re-application of fire proofing treatment. FIT-UP Initial assembly on stage of a production's hardware, including hanging scenery, building trucks etc. An item treated with a flame retardant will limit or inhibit the spread of fire by not supporting combustion. FLAT A lightweight timber frame covered with scenic canvas, or plywood.

Flats are used to provide a lightweight and easy to move and re-configure backdrop to a stage set. Flats sometimes have windows or doors built into them to provide extra flexibility, for use in realistic settings. Masking flats are used to hide areas the designer does not want the audience to see, or to provide actors with an exit, or somewhere to store props. Hardboard is sometimes used, but is unnecessarily heavy and will lose it's shape in time. Most theatres have a range of stock flattage made to a standard size, and re-used many times.

A Rail is a horizontal batten within a flat. A Stile is a side or vertical piece within a flat. A Sill is the bottom rail of a flat. FLOAT FLATS A technique to get a set of flats to a horizontal position on the stage floor by removing weights and braces, ensuring the area is clear and that people are wearing safety goggles if there's danger of flying dust, then footing the flats, and pushing them over so they are cushioned by air pressure and land safely on the deck.

Flats - Types and Methods. FLY Verb - the action of lifting an item up out or down in when attached to the Flying system. A flying piece of scenery can be flown in down or out up on a particular cue given by the DSM to the fly operator on the fly floor above the stage. With the advent of counterweighted systems, this refers to the area where the flying system is operated.

The follow-on can be taken by the operator once a previous cue is complete, or a lighting or sound cue can be programmed to happen a specific time after a previous cue. Fly follow-on cues are often taken as soon as the operator has completed a previous cue. FOOT 1 The action of bracing the bottom of a ladder while a colleague climbs it e. I'll only be a couple of minutes'.

Performances that take place outside the theatre e. The fourth wall convention is an established convention of modern realistic theatre, where the actors carry out their actions unaware of the audience. Where the cast addresses the audience directly, this is said to be 'Breaking the Fourth Wall'. These divisions can be useful in splitting up rehearsal schedules, and for marking lighting changes etc. Calls are normally made at the Half 35 mins. There will be one interval of 15 minutes, and drinks can be ordered at the bar prior to the performance.

The opposite of Full Front. Most common widths are. Used for temporarily securing almost anything. Should not be used on coiled cables or equipment. Also known as Duct Tape. See also PVC Tape. Theatre continuously evolves and reinvents itself, including finding new ways to look at old work. In Marianne Elliot's production 'Company' in London in and later on Broadway, the role of Bobby was gender-swapped to be female.

Genie Industries website Access Equipment. Usually treads. Usually preceded by the strike where the set is disassembled back into component parts. Also believed to keep the theatrical muse in a 'dark' theatre, and to stop people tripping over bits of scenery when they come into the theatre in the morning. The ghost light consists of a vertical pole with a bare light bulb on it, and is placed on stage.

Care should be taken that the cable doesn't create a trip hazard, and that the light bulb is protected with a metal cage. Where possible an energy-saving lamp should be used. Also known as the 'Equity Light'. See link below for more information. Could also refers to the light emitted by a lantern when a dimmer has not been 'trimmed' correctly, and is leaking. French: La servante More information about Ghost Light.

A staple is often used to secure the tape to a floor where it might move. GO The action word used by stage managers to cue other technical departments. The button is usually labelled GO. GO UP The time the show starts e. GOD MIC A PA system setup for a director to use in a large venue to talk to everyone on stage without shouting, during rehearsals and technical periods.

Also used in some small or experimental spaces for tech crew to talk to actors or other crew, if no headset comms system or radios are available. Normally said during lighting plotting sessions or technical rehearsals. GOTE An acronym devised by Robert Cohen, an American university professor, to remind actors of four basic elements on consider when preparing a character. O: Obstacle - what is stopping the character for achieving the goal?

T: Tactics - the methods used to achieve goals E: Expectation - the characters' expection of achieving the goal Wikipedia entry. Refers to a particular type of toggle switch used for manual telephone exchanges which is reliable, silent and heavy duty, and is perfect for Stage Management Desks. But is no longer manufactured. Normally a variation of blue or red in colour, although a more neutral grey is often better for scenes played in front of it, or for taking colours and gobos as tab warmers.

It is also very important to make a good impression on everyone you meet in the business, as bad impressions will be spread around the grapevine very quickly. Modern tools such as Twitter have made the grapevine even more widely spread, and great care must be taken to not publish anything on Twitter that you wouldn't say to someones face.

Needs special removing cream. This enables vending machines and bar scenes to take place with multple products, which have labels which have been amended slightly. GRID 1 The support structure close to the top of the fly tower on which the pulleys of the flying system are supported.

Constructed from metal or wooden beams. Usually wears black. The groundplan shows all items standing on the stage floor and any permanent items which will affect the production, and the position of any flown pieces. The set design groundplan enables the lighting designer to be clear about exact location of all items, and will have the walls of the stage drawn on it so that the stage management team and production manager can plan furniture and set moves offstage.

Typical scales are Venues have a base plan showing proscenium, walls, seating etc on which individual set and lighting plans can be drawn. HALF 1 The Half is a call given to the actors half an hour before they will be called to the stage for the beginning of a performance. It is given 35 minutes before the advertised time of commencement in the UK. On Broadway, the Half is given 30 minutes before the start time.

Subsequent calls given are the 'quarter' at 20 minutes UK , 'the five' at 10 minutes UK and 'beginners to the stage' at 5 minutes before curtain up UK. Also known as Final Call. This dates from a time when lighting was manually controlled, and accurate percentage-point levels were not achievable or at least, not repeatable accurately.

Harnesses can be obtained which are designed for this effect, and standard safety harnesses are not suitable. The rope must have a safety-rated rope built into it, which is suitable for suspending the shock load of the actors' weight, which must be attached to the harness in such a way that it's not possible for the fake noose to ever tighten around the actors' neck.

The hanging must take place with other members of the company present, who have been trained in how the system works under professional supervision. Simply using a rope with a weak point e. A far safer way to hang an actor is to do it offstage - use a blackout or blinding light along with a sound effect to misdirect the audience into thinking they've just seen a hanging, use a shadown projection using small scale dummies or even just use a rope in the shape of a noose with the actor approaching it at floor level followed by a fade to blackout.

Never attempt an effect of this kind involving any suspension or dropping of an actor without a professional rigger experienced and trained in these effects. The phrase comes from the s Roy Rogers television show, where it was the title of the closing theme song: "Happy Trails to you! Roy Rogers TV show closing credits Youtube. HEAD SOUND The head of the sound department, which deals with any recorded music, sound effects, vocal reinforcement and music amplification required in the production.

See also NO. Also used when an object is being dropped from above. The legal component is the Health and Safety at Work Act , but there are a number of regulations which relate to safe working. Safety in Live Entertainment on Theatrecrafts. However, if the audience fails to laugh, the pause will slow the pace of the performance. The actors must learn to react to the audience as they react.

An even more dangerous practice is to assume that the audience of the show tonight will laugh at the same points as the audience of the previous show. HOUSE IS OPEN Announcement made over backstage communication system to let cast and crew know that the auditorium is open to the audience and that if there is no curtain, they should stay off the stage. It is good practice for no-one crew, cast or management to walk onto or off the stage while the house is open unless it's part of the show of course!

IATSE website. If the improvisation helps the performance move forward, appropriately, due to a technical or other issue, then improvisation can be helpful. If, however, it's put in to raise a laugh or breaks character or the mood of the scene, it is frowned on. Theatrical Logic. Refers to a roll of film being taken out of a movie camera and put into a metal film can to be taken for processing.

There are often a number of entrances through the seating. Special consideration needs to be given to onstage furniture and scenery as audience sightlines can easily be blocked. Stage managers and directors often use the idea of a clock face to describe actor positions on stage e.

An event or performance staged by a manufacturer or company in order to launch a product or celebrate a milestone of some kind. Such events are often spectacular. INVENTORY A numbered packing list which itemises all single pieces travelling on a tour; all cartons, flightcases, crates, baskets together with quantities and descriptions of contents. Extremely important if touring abroad to satisfy customs.

Also known as a 'Russian Run'. It was manufactured by a retired British pharmacist, John Tynegate, during the s and s, in the village of Abbotsbury, Dorset. Many varieties of blood, having various degrees of viscosity, shades and textures were available. Since Tynegate's death, the name "Kensington Gore" has become a generic term for stage blood. Kensington Gore was used in the film The Shining.

Director Stanley Kubrick had several thousand gallons of it gushing out of an opening elevator during the elevator door scene. Kill channel 6 please. LEAD 1 The leading actor regardless of gender plays the main character in a play or musical. The term is sometimes genderised the 'leading man' is the male actor and the 'leading lady' is the female actor. LEGS Vertical drape set as masking piece at the side of an end-on acting area. Usually set up in pairs across the stage and used in conjunction with borders to frame the audiences view.

Legs are hung from flying bars, and are usually fairly narrow in width 1. One of many possible origins of the phrase 'Break a Leg', meaning to take an extra encore from the legs after a successful performance. French: Pendrillon also used for wider tabs, but not full-width stage curtains More information on Break A Leg.

The fader is designed to be operated at it's optimal position which is labelled 0dB. The decibel dB scale is a measure of sound intensity. Interesting dynamics between different characters in the play can be explored using various levels. The script of a musical.

The writer of the Libretto is the Librettist. LIFT CALL An additional rehearsal session, often before a performance, to go over tricky choreography which includes lifts where one performer lifts another. See also Fight Call. LINE 1 A rope length, once cut to length or installed for a specific function.

To cut a line from a coil of rope. Example phrases: "Do you know your lines for Scene 2 yet? Also called the Get In, or the Loading Dock. It is at high level so that weights can be loaded when the bar is at the lowest point usually a few feet above stage level. LOCK RAIL The part of the flying system in the theatre where the brakes and rope locks are applied to the ropes to ensure that a fly bar cannot move once set.

Prior to this agreement, Equity basically dealt with Broadway type productions and nothing else. LX Short for Electrics. The department in the theatre responsible for stage lighting and sometimes sound and maintenance of the building's electrical equipment. A piece of musical theatre will credit writers of 'Book' and 'Lyrics'. The author of the book writes the script unsung and the lyricist writes the lyrics in the songs.

Also for marking position of furniture etc. Always be aware that some tapes may damage or mark some wooden floor surfaces! The groundplan has lines on it, which correspond to easily-found locations in the theatre - most commonly, the centre line and the setting line which is the proscenium line, or the edge of the stage.

Measurements on the plan can easily be scaled up to the real-life measurements, and the position can be marked on the stage floor by measuring from the real-world centre line and setting line in the theatre. This type of masking is sometimes known as "Up and Down Masking" as it runs up- and down-stage. This term seems to be rarely used now. The downstage legs are furthest apart, and each set of legs moving upstage is moved onstage, with the upstage set narrowest.

The exact distances involved vary according to the size of the space, and the acting area required. The same applies to the borders. Italian: quintatura Hard Masking consists of solid flats, and Soft Masking is just curtains. From the Latin for 'of the morning', but who does theatre in the morning? This is determined by the fire department, or a fire officer, making use of local regulations about the amount of space required for each person, and by the number of fire exits and the size of exit walkways and the number of toilets etc available.

A minijack to twin-phono cable is used to connect from a laptop, phone or MP3 player into a sound system or mixing desk that has phono 'pin plug' input connections. The term describes all of the visual aspects of a setting - props, lighting, costume as well as set design, and how the details can contribute to the telling of the story.

MODEL A scale model provided by the set designer to help all the technical departments to co-ordinate and plan a production. Used as a reference when building, painting, dressing and lighting the set. When that's been approved by the director, and has been roughly budgeted, the final model is produced which should look identical to the finished set on stage. This is used as a reference by scenic artists and lighting designer etc.

The fully detailed model of the set is sometimes known as a maquette. One example is the flute sound in Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman. Many theatres have their own code words. MT Abbreviation for Musical Theatre.

Musicians Union website. NARRATOR The Narrator of a piece of theatre is a performer who speaks directly to the audience to tell them part of the story, to give additional information, or to comment on the scene or the behaviour of characters. The Narrator may be a single actor throughout, or there may be a number of narrators who share the role during the performance, whilst also playing other parts. NOTES Following a rehearsal or an early performance in a run the director will give notes to the cast and crew about where to make changes, improvements, cuts etc.

Opposite Prompt side of the stage. Stage Right. Directors and stage managers will often set a deadline for performers to be off book, and actors are expected to learn their lines in good time. Example usage: 'The event was an olio of poetry, dance and songs'.

Acts were performed in front of this before the movie played. From Seattle to Vancouver, B. Directionals are always a good fill in xword puzzles Both are made by Volkswagen. Both the Volkswagen Jetta and the Volkswagen Passat offer a stylish body. However, the Volkswagen Jetta is more compact with its The Volkswagen Passat is a little larger with a According to Norm Reeves in Irvine Nominated in Obama's first term; a year after Sotomayor.

Another western state. Here's an earworm for your listening pleasure. Game noise: RAH. The Dad's joke cheer: "Rah rah ree Rah rah rass Travis Scott? Complete unknown. I'm not big into rap More names. Larry David - co-creator of Seinfeld. Ivy League nickname: ELI. Bone: Pref. From the Greek "osteon", meaning bone Little terrors: IMPS. Red Wings, on scoreboards: DET. The city of Detroit is nicknamed, "Hockeytown" Down: 1. Cute clue. Interesting how this word can be used as a verb, in the present or past tense, to refer to removing a knot, and as an adverb in the past tense to refer to a team which has not played a game in which a "tie score" was the final outcome.

Event in the film "Spellbound": BEE. A CSO to my fellow blogger, melissa bee. Regarding the movie, here is the trailer I wonder how well a crossword puzzle would be received using some of these words? E nvironmental P rotection A gency. We had this on Tuesday this week Affectations: AIRS. In a snobbish, or grandiose manner Moe-ku 2: When hanging her clothes, Jane brags of their cost.

Some definitions refer more specifically to it as a small Jewish town in Eastern Europe. Wikipedia Sidney Poitier starred in it on Broadway U niversity of V irgini A. The Cavaliers from Charlottesville. Ralph Sampson was their first superstar basketball player, back in the early 's. UVA suffered somewhat of an embarrassment, being the first ever 1 seed in the NCAA Tournament to fall to a 16 seed in the first round But they more than made up for it by running the table in the tournament.

One of the stars of that team, Ty Jerome, was drafted by the Phoenix Suns One of those abbreviated words that does not require an abbr. Means: having many curves and turns. Wall St. L everaged B uy O ut. Where a company's management uses outside capital to buy back enough shares to have controlling interest. Had this same entry on Wed's. Austin music festival, initially: SXSW. All you need to know about SXSW. Stands for South by Southwest, I think Texan Cornerites? Part of a hand: CLAP. Role for Jon: Joe - Joe Buck - pretty provacative film for Listen to the movie's "theme song" Ok, follow the instructions and offer your answers below in the comments section Wouldn't it be ironic if he were Jewish??!

Like this? Mix in: ADD. If we are talking about drinks, I rarely ADD anything, other than maybe a garnish. Today's had the "singular". Is Friday the melting pot for like answers?? I am not sure why "Mountain" Mtn Dew is abbreviated in this clue. Had a row? Row, as in fight?

Nope, row as in "row, row, row your boat, gently down the stream A slight bit larger than our resident sea mammal - the Malodorous Manatee - but also one that breathes via lungs. Thar she blows! Now that the World Series is over, perhaps best to recall and remember the man who pitched no only perfect world-series game. At least HE was able to pitch the entire game, and beat the Dodgers The Tampa Bay Rays manager will be remembered for eternity for pulling Snell too early.

Sorry, tinbeni and WC. I was hoping the Rays would take it to game 7 Band instrument: DRUM. My son-in-law is a percussionist and plays the DRUMs; but he excels at the marimba, too. My daughter ain't half bad on the bassoon GI show gp. Pepsi alternatives: RCS. I didn't know you could use a one clue's answer for another clue, in the same puzzle?

RC's, as in R oyal C rown. Droid: BOT. Short for Ro-BOT. R2D2, et al Cairo cobra: ASP. Like the alliteration; Cleo's Cairo Cobra also works Sheboygan's st. What sayest the cheese-heads?? OK, Knuckleheads, give me your best shot below! FIR, ignored the theme. Easy Friday. Good morning! Saw the circles, decided they were probably abbreviations for sports teams, and totally missed the rest of the sprawl.

In retrospect, it's impressive that Sean was able to come up with two words side-by-side where alternate letters would spell the name of a major city. Excellent review, C-Moe. The city can annex any unincorporated areas within the ETJ at will. After the annexation, the ETJ is extended five miles further out. That's why our little town incorporated as a city, so we're no longer "unincorporated" and no longer subject to annexation. Houston is among the sprawliest of the urban sprawls -- almost square miles spread across three counties.

ASU: The folks spent the last odd years of their lives in a retirement community in Tempe. For several years they'd been living south of Tucson. One Christmas when I came to visit, they told me they were glad I was there so I could orchestrate their move to the Phoenix area. Not quite the vacation I'd envisioned.

WIS: C-Moe, that's the abbreviation I grew up with, until it was supplanted by the 2-character postal code. You'd see WISC occasionally, but it never really caught on. Covid-cancelled this year, but it'll be back in ' And my generator is still humming. Most of the NOLA area is still without electricity.

Oh, the puzzle. I couldn't figure out what the circled letters were representing and after FIR didn't bother to try. The NE gave me the most trouble to complete. I've never heard the term "Spill the TEA", only beans. CLAP for "part of a hand" was my finishing fill. Great clue. Slowed down considerably in the top-right.

I'm not a fan of foreign words, and Shtetl doesn't even look like a word. Lorraine was unknown, but showed enough of itself through the perps. I was also confused with Pepsi being a clue and an answer, and the unnecessary abbr. I didn't see theme, but I'm sure it required a lot of work to construct. Marvin Miller threatened to invoke the indenture decision re. Yes, MLB raised ticket prices-because they now had high prices stars. Speaking of analysis, Picard introduced me to the Monte Hall conundrum.

Three boxes, one contains keys to a Lincoln. He uncovers C, no key; you have originally picked A. Is it to your advantage to switch to B. Various PhDs said "She's nuts". Simulations agree with AM. Omg, there goes my FIR. When I picked the paper up I recalled the circles and spotted the city abbrevs but not the spraWled out names. Nice write-up C-Moe. Thanks, Sean, for the puzzle. FIR, but never did fully grasp the mechanics of the theme. Ch Moe, well done on the recap in all respects - explanation, visuals, humor, sea mammals and, with an eye on the bottom line, consistency.

When we learned how to construct and mail a letter in 4th? Didn't change to WI 'till early 70's. But had UTAH before noticing state abbreviation. Been to 4 Corners. Found it ironic that a US geographic designation sits in the middle of Native American land. Good morning. Thank you, Sean Biggins, and thank you, Chairman Moe. The puzzle was, as Chairman Moe wrote, fairly easy to solve. I saw the circles and got the abbreviations for the cities, but never saw the cities fully spelled out until reading the review.

Kudos, Chairman Moe, for catching that! I suppose that I'd grown accustomed to seeing circles and knowing "that would be that". I wonder if the decision to not have circles in part of the answers was the editor's decision or the author's decision? A few names needed perps, but all was fair. Had olD school before MED school. My sister bought "Tapestry" and played it over and over again.

I grew to like every song on the album and become a fan of Carole King. Ohio State will be at Penn State tomorrow late afternoon. No "White Out" this year. So far, the largest margin of victory in the rivalry is 49 points. Penn State beat the Buckeyes in Ohio State returned the favor, beating the Nittany Lions by the same score in Big test for the Steelers this Sunday as they travel to play the favored Ravens in Bal'more.

I'll be tuned in. It's over half way there now. Good Morning: Well, this was a fun theme and solve. In addition to the sprawling cities, Sean tossed in N. Some rough spots were Taiga, Sixer I knew Dr. J, but not his team , Scott, and Susie. Thanks, Sean, for a Fab Friday and thanks, C. Moe, for your witty and fact-filled expo. There is a slight dusting of the white stuff on the ground and a barely visible sprinkling of more falling.

Nothing too bothersome but a harbinger of a wet winter? Have a great day. Pretty easy, but entertaining puzzle. Good use of circles, and finding the other letters to complete the city was fun. Poor editing IMO. Good job! Off to donate blood today I'm at around pints. Good morning everyone. Thanks Chairman Moe for a fine intro. Looks like you put a lot of work into it. After I was done, it seemed like it was on the easy side for a Friday. Easier answers were on NW-SE diagonal, so the solve bloomed out from there.

Didn't see how the circles applied, so paid no attention. Fairly common surname in our area. The 'L ending comes from the S. German, Austrian practice of forming certain diminutives. I can see how Yiddish speakers glommed on to that.

BZ to Sean for cobbling together a complicated theme, and shepherding it through the editorial process. Oh state not street. The theme way too clever for my cerebrum. For me as a tyke s cars had huge faces, bug-eyed headlights and big chrome smiling or glaring teeth. Galleria filler: first thought: a mall with a shop.

The answer should actually be Also the name of my first serious college GF. She could chew gum, smoke, and make out at the same time in descending order of importance Who says "spill the TEA"? Today's photo finish is the glass on your smart phone. Master to Galley slaves "Gentlemen what's say we have a row" Tootsie wouldn't fit for Dustin.

RATSO was an unfortunate stereotype.. Equally unfortunate Suicide on the Nile? ASP Pick you up at Thanks for the link. Musings -What a fabulous gimmick! Really liked that some of the theme letters were circled, but not all of them. Made it fun to figure out the rest on my own. Didn't see that they were airport abbreviations until Chairman Moe pointed it out here.

Very clever! Not a big fan of themes but this one was very skillfully done. Kudos also to CM for his great write-up. Sunshine today which has been scarce of late. And 60's tomorrow! Stay safe and well everyone. Complicated Friday puzzle, but with some clever stuff--many thanks, Sean. And your explanations were a big help, Chairman Moe. And, of course, I know my T. Yes, I too wanted to make it "spill the beans" and not the TEA.

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A play is usually identified in the format xy WORD score or WORD xy score , where x denotes the column or row on which the play's main word extends, y denotes the second coordinate of the main word's first letter, and WORD is the main word.

Although it is unnecessary, additional words formed by the play are sometimes listed after the main word and a slash. When the play of a single tile forms words in each direction, one of the words is arbitrarily chosen to serve as the main word for purposes of notation. When a blank tile is employed in the main word, the letter it has been chosen to represent is indicated with a lower case letter, or, in handwritten notation, with a square around the letter.

When annotating a play, previously existing letters on the board are usually enclosed in parentheses; alternatively, the number of tiles placed on the board can be noted. The image at right gives examples of valid plays and how they would typically be annotated using the notation system. Additionally, a number of symbols have been employed to indicate the validity of words in different lexica:. Before the game, a resource, either a word list or a dictionary, is selected for the purpose of adjudicating any challenges during the game.

The tiles are either put in an opaque bag or placed face down on a flat surface. Opaque cloth bags and customized tiles are staples of clubs and tournaments, where games are rarely played without both. Next, players decide the order in which they play.

The normal approach is for players to each draw one tile: The player who picks the letter closest to the beginning of the alphabet goes first, with blank tiles taking precedence over the letter A. In most North American tournaments, the rules of the US-based North American Scrabble Players Association NASPA stipulate instead that players who have gone first in the fewest previous games in the tournament go first, and when that rule yields a tie, those who have gone second the most go first.

If there is still a tie, tiles are drawn as in the standard rules. At the beginning of the game, each player draws seven tiles from the bag and places them on their rack, concealed from the other player s. The first played word must be at least two letters long, and cover H8 the center square. Thereafter, any move is made by using one or more tiles to place a word on the board. This word may use one or more tiles already on the board and must join with the cluster of tiles already on the board.

A proper play uses one or more of the player's tiles to form a continuous string of letters that make a word the play's "main word" on the board, reading either left-to-right or top-to-bottom. The main word must either use the letters of one or more previously played words or else have at least one of its tiles horizontally or vertically adjacent to an already played word.

If any words other than the main word are formed by the play, they are scored as well and are subject to the same criteria of acceptability. See Scoring for more details. A blank tile may represent any letter, and scores zero points, regardless of its placement or what letter it represents.

Its placement on a double-word or triple-word square causes the corresponding premium to be applied to the word s in which it is used. Once a blank tile is placed, it remains that particular letter for the remainder of the game. After making a play, the player announces the score for that play, and then, if the game is being played with a clock , starts the opponent's clock.

The player can change their play as long as the player's clock is running, but commits to the play when they start the opponent's clock. The player then draws tiles from the bag to replenish their rack to seven tiles. If there are not enough tiles in the bag to do so, the player takes all the remaining tiles. If a player has made a play and has not yet drawn a tile, the opponent may choose to challenge any or all words formed by the play.

The player challenged must then look up the words in question using a specified word source such as OTCWL , the Official Scrabble Players Dictionary , or CSW and if any one of them is found to be unacceptable, the play is removed from the board, the player returns the newly played tiles to their rack, and the turn is forfeited. In tournament play, a challenge may be to the entire play or any one or more words formed in the play, and judges human or computer are used, so players are not entitled to know which word s are invalid.

Penalties for unsuccessfully challenging an acceptable play vary in club and tournament play and are described in greater detail below. When the game ends, each player's score is reduced by the sum of their unplayed letters. In addition, if a player has used all of their letters known as "going out" or "playing out" , the sum of the other player's unplayed letters is added to that player's score; in tournament play, a player who goes out adds twice that sum, and their opponent is not penalized.

Plays can be made in a number of ways in what follows, it is assumed that the word JACK has been played on a previous turn; letters in parentheses represent tiles already on the board :. Any combination of these is allowed in a play, as long as all the letters placed on the board in one play lie in one row or column and are connected by a main word, and any run of tiles on two or more consecutive squares along a row or column constitutes a valid word.

When the letters to be drawn have run out, the final play can often determine the winner. This is particularly the case in close games with more than two players. Scoreless turns can occur when a player passes, exchanges tiles, or loses a challenge.

The latter rule varies slightly in international tournaments. A scoreless turn can also theoretically occur if a play consists of only blank tiles, but this is extremely unlikely in actual play. Note that the Q is not doubled for this play. But since this is a seven-letter play, 50 points are added, resulting in a total score of Player 1 now has a —51 lead.

The player with the highest final score wins the game. In case of a tie, the player with the highest score before adjusting for unplayed tiles wins the game. Acceptable words are the primary entries in some chosen dictionary , and all of their inflected forms.

Words that are hyphenated, capitalized such as proper nouns , or apostrophized are not allowed, unless they also appear as acceptable entries; JACK is a proper noun, but the word JACK is acceptable because it has other usages as a common noun automotive, vexillological , etc. Variant spellings, slang or offensive terms, archaic or obsolete terms, and specialized jargon words are allowed if they meet all other criteria for acceptability, but archaic spellings e.

Vulgar and offensive words are generally excluded from the OSPD4 but allowed in club and tournament play. Proper nouns and other exceptions to the usual rules are allowed in some limited contexts in the spin-off game Scrabble Trickster. Names of recognized computer programs are permitted as an acceptable proper noun For example, WinZIP. The memorization of two-letter words is considered an essential skill in this game. The first is used in America, Canada, Israel and Thailand, and the second in English Scrabble in the rest of the world.

North American competitions use the Long Words List for longer words. If the word has only an offensive meaning, it is only included in the OWL2. The lexicon includes all allowed words of length 2 to 15 letters. This book is used to adjudicate at the World Scrabble Championship and all other major international competitions outside North America.

The penalty for a successfully challenged play is nearly universal: the offending player removes the tiles played and forfeits his or her turn. In some online games, an option known as "void" may be used, wherein unacceptable words are automatically rejected by the program. The player is then required to make another play, with no penalty applied. The penalty for an unsuccessful challenge where all words formed by the play are deemed valid varies considerably, including:.

Under NASPA tournament rules, a player may request to "hold" the opponent's play in order to consider whether to challenge it, provided that the opponent has not yet drawn replacement tiles. If player A holds, player A's clock still runs, and player B may not draw provisional replacement tiles until 15 seconds after the hold was announced which tiles must then be kept separate.

There is no limit on how long player A may hold the play. If player A successfully challenges after player B drew provisional replacement tiles, player B must show the drawn tiles before returning them to the bag. Tens of thousands play club and tournament Scrabble worldwide. All tournament and most club games are played with a game clock and a set time control.

Although casual games are often played with unlimited time, this is problematic in competitive play among players for whom the number of evident legal plays is immense. Almost all tournament games involve only two players; typically, each has 25 minutes in which to make all of their plays. For each minute by which a player oversteps the time control, a penalty of 10 points is assessed.

The number of minutes is rounded up, so, for example, if a player oversteps time control by two minutes and five seconds, the penalty is 30 points. There are also games that count the time by fractions of a minute. Players are allowed "tracking sheets", pre-printed with the letters in the initial pool, from which tiles can be crossed off as they are played. Tracking tiles is an important aid to strategy, especially during the endgame, when no tiles remain to be drawn and each player can determine exactly what is on the opponent's rack.

Clubs in North America typically meet one day a week for three or four hours and some charge a small admission fee to cover their expenses and prizes. Clubs also typically hold at least one open tournament per year. Tournaments are usually held on weekends, and between six and nine games are played each day.

There are also clubs in the UK and many other countries. During off hours at tournaments, many players socialize by playing consultation team Scrabble , Clabbers , Anagrams , Boggle , Words with Friends, Scramble with Friends and other games. The following records were achieved during international competitive club or tournament play , according to authoritative sources, including the book Everything Scrabble by Joe Edley and John D.

Williams, Jr. Two other records are believed [ citation needed ] to have been achieved under a British format known as the "high score rule", in which a player's tournament result is determined only by the player's own scores, and not by the differentials between that player's scores and the opponents'.

Play in this system "encourages elaborate setups often independently mined by the two players", [33] and is significantly different from the standard game in which defensive considerations play a major role. While the "high score" rule has led to impressively high records, it is currently out of favor.

Hypothetical scores in possible and legal but highly unlikely plays and games are far higher, primarily through the use of words that cover three triple-word-score squares. Anselm's College , Birkenhead, Merseyside, setting a new duration record. A longer record was never recorded by Guinness Book of Records , as the publishers decided that duration records of this nature were becoming too dangerous and stopped accepting them. An introduction to tournament Scrabble and its players can be found in Stefan Fatsis 's book Word Freak.

In the process of writing, Fatsis himself became a high-rated tournament player. The Scrabble Player's Handbook , edited by Stewart Holden and written by an international group of tournament players, gives the information a serious player needs to advance to successful tournament play.

Maven is a computer opponent for the game created by Brian Sheppard. The official Scrabble computer game in North America uses a version of Maven as its artificial intelligence and is published by Atari. Outside North America, the official Scrabble computer game is published by Ubisoft.

Quackle is an open-source alternative to Maven of comparable strength, created by a five-person team led by Jason Katz-Brown. The Nintendo DS version of Scrabble Edition made news when parents became angry over the game's AI using potentially offensive language during gameplay. A number of websites offer the possibility to play Scrabble online against other users, such as ScrabbleScores.

Facebook initially offered a variation of Scrabble called Scrabulous as a third-party application add-on. On July 24, , Hasbro filed a copyright infringement lawsuit against its creators. By December 20, Hasbro had withdrawn its lawsuit. Mattel launched its official version of online Scrabble , Scrabble by Mattel , on Facebook in late March When Gamehouse ceased support for its application, Mattel replaced it with the Electronic Arts version in May This decision was met with criticism from its user base.

Electronic Arts has also released mobile apps for Android and iOS, allowing players to continue the same game on more than one platform. As well as facilities to play occasional games online, there are many options to play in leagues. Features such as boosts, rewards and all other game modes are disabled", the company announced. A new licensed product, Super Scrabble , was launched in North America by Winning Moves Games in under license from Hasbro, with the deluxe version with turntable and lock-in grid released in February A Mattel-licensed product for the rest of the world was released by Tinderbox Games in The game was called Alfapet when it was introduced in Sweden in , but since the mids, the game has also been known as Scrabble in Sweden.

Alfapet is now another crossword game, created by the owners of the name Alfapet. A Russian version is called Erudit. For languages with digraphs counted as single letters, such as Welsh and Hungarian , the game features separate tiles for those digraphs. The previous year the same organisation published the Junior version of the game and two years later it republished Junior Scrabble using a two-sided and two skill level board. Billed as the "Official Home Version" of the game show or officially as the "TV Scrabble Home Game" , game play bears more resemblance to the game show than it does to a traditional Scrabble game, although it does utilize a traditional Scrabble gameboard in play.

There are numerous variations of the game. While they are similar to the original Scrabble game, they include minor variations. For example, Literati draws random tiles instead of providing a finite number of tiles for the game, assigns different point levels to each letter and has a slightly different board layout, whereas Lexulous assigns eight letters to each player instead of seven. Words with Friends uses a different board layout and different letter values, as does Words of Gold.

Duplicate Scrabble is a popular variant in French speaking countries. Every player has the same letters on the same board and the players must submit a paper slip at the end of the allotted time usually 3 minutes with the highest scoring word they have found. There is no limit to the number of players that can be involved in one game, and at Vichy in there were players, a record for French Scrabble tournaments.

In one variation of Scrabble , blanks score points corresponding to the letters the blanks are used to represent. For example, if one played blank to represent a Z, it would get ten; a blank to represent a V or an H would get four; a blank to represent a D would get 2 and blank to represent a T, N, L, S or R or any of the vowels would get one.

Popular among tournament Scrabble players is Clabbers. In Clabbers, any move that consists of anagrams of allowable words is allowed. A junior version, called Junior Scrabble , has been marketed. This has slightly different distributions of frequencies of letter tiles to the standard Scrabble game. The game has been released in numerous gameboard formats appealing to various user groups.

The original boards included wood tiles and many "deluxe" sets still do. Tile Lock editions of Scrabble [80] and Super Scrabble [81] [82] are made by Winning Moves and feature smaller, plastic tiles that are held in place on the board with little plastic posts.

The standard version features exactly the same tiles as regular Scrabble. Editions are available for travelers who may wish to play in a conveyance such as a train or plane, or to pause a game in progress and resume later. Many versions thus include methods to keep letters from moving, such as pegboards, recessed tile holders and magnetic tiles.

Players' trays are also designed with stay-fast holders. Such boards are also typically designed to be reoriented by each player to put the board upright during the game, as well as folded and stowed with the game in progress.

At the opposite end, some "deluxe" or "prestige" [83] editions offer superior materials and features. These include editions on a rotating turntable, so players can always face the board, with the letters upright and a raised grid that holds the tiles in place. An edition has been released in association with the Royal National Institute of Blind People RNIB [87] with a larger board and letters for players with impaired vision. The tiles are in bold 48 point, and have braille labels.

A separate braille edition is also available. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Scrabble disambiguation. Board game with words. Further information: Scrabble letter distributions. The name of the game spelled out in game tiles from the English-language version. Each tile is marked with their point value, with a blank tile—the game's equivalent of a wild card —played as the word's first letter.

The blank tile is worth zero points. See also: Category:Scrabble lexica. Main article: Challenge Scrabble. This section does not cite any sources. So I knew we were talking dinero stuff here. I wanted that picking up business to be a juice bar for some stupid reason. I think it was called Scotts.

They had some delicious liver and onions, the men were also delicious but they were all gay. Our dear governator, Gavin Newsom, is impossible to listen to. He takes a breath between each word that he throws out like pellucid and disphoric. I think he called Trump a sybarite. He likes those big words probably hoping no one knows what he's talking about.

I'll go back upstairs and try and read the letter. Liked this very much. Did well except for the cross of vox and boxer. No experience with vox. Rex, have you never played cards? Singleton is very common usage in poker, bridge, hearts, etc. Sure, let's allow four, five, seventeen letters in one square! Please stop publishing these terrible examples of "wordplay.

Minoritized students having the deck stacked against them in college admissions? Drinking fountains segregated by race? That goes for every whiny entitled piece of garbage in this godforsaken comments section. My parents taught my brother and me bridge at a early age so they could play. Turns out a singleton in a non-trump suit in one or very rarely both hand is useful.

That means, usually, that the bidders have excess cards in the suit, and the defender can trump those leads and win the tricks. Haven't played in decades. Quarantine seems a good excuse to start playing again. If only I could find three more soles here in the mountains. I felt like I was doing this puzzle through a glass, darkly, but I managed to prevail.

Couldn't remember what a CLAM was. Was it a fiver? NOTE could have worked for a fiver, but not those two. One of those puzzles that I found more fun to have solved than to solve. Pepper sure because thinking Marie Kondo is too niche for the puzzle is exactly the same as white only water fountains. The kind of idiocy you express where everything you don't like is racist or sexist or some other ist is why it is impossible to take anything you say seriously and also why Trump got elected.

You are your own worst enemies. Mark Lilla at Columbia as written good pieces on it. And I don't need to see myself out of the world, just need to convince most people how absurd view like yours are and that they need to be rejected. I like my odds since your side makes it so easy. Hey Todd: would you opt to run the race with or without the 50 pound rucksack? If you were in charge of the race, rather than a runner, how would you decide who gets the bonus rucksack?

Why not a fair race from the start? Not really. LOVED this puzzle! As far as Rex advocating for affirmative action re: NYTXW staff, I think there are far more pressing issues to be concerned about right now. And as a lawyer, I always know that there at least two sides to every story. Sometimes three. We've only heard one version. Right there with LMS in needing to de-hyphenate my thoughts to figure out the theme.

LMS - perseverate and prevaricate. The first like me on Dylan. The second like his orangeness every time he opens his mouth. Definitely great, just not Shakespeare great. Hopefully, this link to the letter will work better. ReginaGeorge seems to have it in for the ketch. It's just a sailboat. Anyway, a question for Z or Lewis or others. BTW, a ketch is 2 masted sailer with the helm aft of the aft mizzen mast. A yawl has the helm between masts. This was a beautiful rebus. It didn't fit, but I didn't notice that extra space at the end right away.

I had missed Natan Last's article, but I liked the letter; it seems things are worse than I had thought. I don't buy the argument that because we are in the midst of a plague we should just accept job discrimination. I use the NYT crossword app on my iPad. Got only four of the five rebuses and the happy music came on despite the fact that my answer to 28 down was ssbars. Yeah, the on-line dictionary makes it a slam dunk: sybarite " usually lowercase a person devoted to luxury and pleasure.

No issue at all with the letter to the NYT -- the cause is just. I'm actually mildly offended that no one asked me to sign as a Solver. Interesting word, "abusive" -- vague, yet highly sinister. I didn't see it anywhere in the letter. Does the fact that someone resigned because they felt tokenized mean they were "abused"? Typical Rex, using inflammatory language to up the ante into an accusation he can't substantiate and, of course, has no interest in doing so.

Our President does crap like this every day, so Rex is keeping interesting company. A Bridge clue is equally valid. Anonymous That bumper sticker certainly uses the language of self-involvement as outlined above, but the language is deployed for diametrically opposite purposes. Banning abortion denies well-being and personhood for people, whereas systemically supporting equitable success is in favor of such. The mimicry of language is deployed here precisely for that opposition; because it lays bare the hypocrisy of self-involvement by pointing out that the privileged only consider it a virtue when it works in their favor.

Leave it a Mike to rant about dessert. Your panties are just a little too much in a wad. It's wrong that the constructors can't see the version of their puzzle before it is published. The constructor of last Sunday's puzzle, Ricky, stopped by here to say that they changed his puzzle and screwed up the whole purpose of the revealer. It was Spot The Difference, but the editors circled the differences. The world is diverse, that's what makes it interesting. Crossword puzzles are for learning about the world.

At least for me, anyway. They actually crossed each other in an LA Times puzzle I did a few weeks ago!! Those I played cards with always used to refer to the only card of a suit you were dealt as a singleton. Boy, what tortured grammar. I'm not sure how anyone who hasn't played cards would know the term. I solve the paper version of the puzzle. Instead of filling in the rebus word, I just enter a black dot and remember what it stands for. That would not be an option for a non-print version.

Choose your own poison. Now on to the emotional topic at hand. First, I use my own experience as organist as an example. If, when you are hired, you are told to paly the hymns slowly and solemnly, if you play them quickly with bounciness, most in the congregation will approve and be more inspired. But you will be fired. If, when you are being interviewed for a job, you are told of the restrictions placed on you, you either accept the restrictions whether you like them or not or you should not accept the job.

It sounds as if Claire Muscat knew her job restrictions before accepting the position. While one can question if the restriction was appropriate, you can also question whether it was appropriate for her to accept the position given the restrictions. If she did offer expected input that others received with skepticism, I would say that would be problematic.

Sharp would howl with disapproval. The point is that it is a fact that certain words are off limits. Based upon earlier write-ups, Mr. Sharp wholeheartedly agrees with this policy and would even enlarge the number of off-limits entries. The general rule seems to be a negative one. If a majority of solvers react negatively to an entry, that entry is barred. If a majority of solvers are not tuned into a given entry that is slang or a neologism, that entry is barred, especially in early week puzzles.

Where to draw the line? I am not a fan of political correctness. But I suspect I oppose forced feeding. The terms discrimination, affirmative action, and quota are hot-button issues. And the fact that the ultimate goal of the NYT is revenue while the ultimate goal of Shortz should include solver satisfaction does create a conflict. At one time, orchestras were white male groups with rare exceptions. Not so today, although blacks are still under representative.

I expect things will get better, but probably not without a fight. And I suspect any fight has to include economic warfare. Not pleasant to think about. The Handicapper General's agents enforce the equality laws, forcing citizens to wear "handicaps": masks for those who are too beautiful, loud radios that disrupt thoughts inside the ears of intelligent people, and heavy weights for the strong or athletic.

The more things change? Thanks Evan for a lovely Thursday puzzle. First, I appreciate the letter that you have written. Second, I did the puzzle on the app and then checked it here when I got notice that it wasn't right but I match your solve. Did anyone else have this issue? I know it's silly but I don't want to lose my solve streak by using the check puzzle tool on the app.

Just wondering where I might have gone wrong. I love rebuses. I can't remember ever disliking a rebus puzzle. I also love five-dollar words, an actuality that I'm convinced must be readily discernible to those perusing my quotidian contributions to this cruciverbian discourse.

OK, I promise: I'll try to rein it in. As a rather happy-go-lucky solver, I don't tend to think too deeply about these puzzles unless Rex or one of you makes me. But this issue of diversity among constructors, editors and test-solvers strikes me as a worthy one. My default position is that it's good to open institutions to a wide variety of voices. Selfishly, as an older solver, I wonder how well I might do if the wheelhouse drops below my horizon. But then again, it's important to attract younger solvers.

And, hey, I might learn a thing or two. I'm a strabismus-survivor, having had two surgeries in childhood. I no longer have a wandering eye so my once-close resemblance to Marty Feldman has really softened -- thank goodness! My sister has it, too although our parents seemingly didn't , but hers wasn't diagnosed until senior adulthood and they say she's too old for surgery now -- the brain's no longer sufficiently plastic to make the required adjustments after the operation.

Todd Yes Todd, only things that are exactly identical to each other can be compared. You are so inept at pattern recognition that you are unable to identify systemic obstacles underlying inequalities. Newsflash, you myopic fossil, none of us ever get to where we are solely on our own. Have fun at your Mark Lilla school of blaming minoritized populations for not being nice enough to racists and sexists.

Hey All! Gonna comment ERE reading y'all. First, I am a straight white male and I have yet to get a puz in the NYT, after manyan attempts, so take that as you will. I guess my puzs really do not measure up. Read: they suck! We've had this percentage discussion of submitted puzs versus accepted puzs by women, etc.

Third, that's it about all that from me! Fourth, this puz. Liked it, but boy howdy, I had to pseudo-cheat to find Dollar synonyms, as that 38D clue was flummoxing me. Had the OWD, and just could not come up with anything. Then, that little SW corner got me good. So I was looking in that SW for a rebus square. VOX was an unknown. Lots of black squares on the edges, but that's alright, as it probably made for better fill.

Pretty nice ThursPuz rebus. A-OK, as it were. Geez, Pepper, we have enough personal attacks in the rest of our lives. We don't need it here, on a crossword blog. This is a place to escape that sort of nonsense. Even if it's only for a brief moment. Have an opinion; I have lots of 'em. Express your opinion; I often do.

But leave the personal attacks behind, at least for this blog. Giovanni: Yes, constructors do see their puzzles before going to print, but they are not invited or given the opportunity to comment or provided feedback. Fully edited puzzles are sent to their authors in the week prior to publication so they can write up their constructor comments for XWord Info and Wordplay, should they wish to mention specific clues or editorial changes.

In short, once a puzzle is accepted, it's out of the constructor's hands completely, with no voice regarding editorial decisions; the letter calls, among other things, for a change to that policy. Unknown - Rex did not write the letter. Having had to write disciplinary letters in a professional context, we were to taught to let the facts speak for themselves by avoiding adjectives and loaded words.

I will add that based on a Twitter conversation and what Rex wrote today, he apparently knows quite a bit more of the details than he feels permitted to share. I did. That little frustration aside, it was still a good Thursday challenge and most enjoyable. Joaquin Well said. Discrimination and abusive behavior is one thing.

Afirmative action for its own sake will give us crap puzzles Not that the quality isn't already diluted. Frankly, I'm a little sick and tired of this quest for equality among unequal achievers for their own sake of diversity The very definition. Curious to see if this gets published. This whole AA argument boils down to one concept dealt, sometimes and only a bit, with in school.

Nearly universally ignored by those who work in the profession, esp. It's called Externalities. The ones we know most about are the various pollutions we live with. Some industrialist s got away with dumping crap in the air, land, and waters for decades if not centuries, thus avoiding the cost of not doing so, and sloughing off the effects which are costs to those affected on neighbors.

Corporate pig farms in the South are a current example. But abortion how did that get in the conversation? Banning, or restricting enough to make it prohibitively expensive, abortion has two externalities contra not banning : the woman must bear the burden of paying for a child not wanted for whatever reason, while the contra case puts some psychological burden on those offended.

As the bumper sticker announces: don't want one, don't get one. Whatever happened to that notion of personal freedom of the Revolution? One Right Wingnut wrote some place some time ago trust me, I'm not making this up , that if all this inter-marriage went on much longer, "we'll all look like Brazilians!! Another basis for discrimination up in flames. In the puzzle? Where does the hyphen come in? As for the commentators that suggest there are more pressing matters to give attention to now, note you have just finished a crossword, read a crossword blog, and then took the time to comment on that blog.

So you have already set the bar. Rex, I'm curious as to why you haven't signed the letter? I'm also curious why the comments of Pepper have not been removed. I didn't think you allowed ad hominem attacks in this blog on other commenters at any rate. I also noticed that "Pepper" has only had an account since last month. This is often associated with a trolling account.

Please remove them. I was able to read the letter easily. Presumably she was hired, like the rest of the staff, because of qualifications in intelligence and expertise as well as for being female. Reminds me of when I had my first house renovated. It took a long time for me to collect plumbers, electricians, carpenters, handymen, etc who heard me and responded with answers and solutions and workmanship that made sense. This puzzle was very tough for me. So many blank spaces before I admitted defeat.

When the light finally went on, I chuckled and rolled my eyes. Plum: According to the wiki, yes bridge players skew geezer, but also better educated, thus higher income and so forth. But so does Republicanism well, modulo the Rural Redneck sub-genre. I'm OK with banning both. After the first round of upsy-downsy I was still looking at huge swaths of white.

SW corner was a long-time head scratcher that finally began to take shape when VOX popped into my brain. Never hoid of old Jack. I liked it a lot. BTW, to the Anonymous who whined about rebuses: Get over it. Barbara S Many eye care professionals still advise adults with strabismus that they are too old to benefit from treatment. Providers who are most knowledgeable in this area strongly disagree.

Although some of what can be achieved at best in childhood is not accessible in adulthood, there can be many very substantial benefits no matter how advanced the age. One that comes to mind is perspicacity. Also ululate. Stolid is kinda spunky, too boot. It evidently did not accept checks, however. Thanx, Mr. Spot on, Todd. I'm all for equal representation based on merit. But this diatribe on the NYTXW's alleged discrimination against female constructors, offensive cluing and employment practices is beyond the pale.

No one can ever challenge my socialist bona fides, so when I ask my brothers and sisters to tone down this cacophony of hate, it is done with a deep understanding of discrimination and prejudice and a lifetime of work as an attorney battling iniquities.

This is the wrong place to expend that energy. I think it would be far more honest for you to just come out and say Will Shortz is a misogynist racist pig. Christ, folks, a crossword is for amusement. Fight your wars at the ballot box. Five, Buck, Note, Clam, Bill all 4 letters. That final square broke me. On the internet, Mark Twain has said many things he didn't say or write in his life.

It's something he has in common with Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Franklin, all of whom are on bills. Cleveland, not so much. Yes, Chief Justice Roberts notwithstanding, systemic "isms" are real things; and Rex didn't write the letter. Why is a torte, specifically, a dietary no no? The animals and pop culture references had me saying what I was writing in the puzzle yesterday.

Overall a pretty fun puzzle. DNF today. I'm especially chagrined by this because my favorite Roxy Music song, "Love Is The Drug" has the following lyrics: Late that night I park my car Stake my place in the singles bar Face to face, toe to toe Heart to heart as we hit the floor Lumber up, limbo down The locked embrace, the stumble round I say go, she say yes Dim the lights, you can guess the rest I also had trouble with the beginning word of the revealer.

Was it a rebus for million-dollar word? Fifty dollar word? Putting pOkER in for "jabber" didn't help either. They say that when you're under stress, your IQ loses a few points. That's my excuse and I'm sticking to it. Evan Mahnken, I really liked your puzzle, thanks.

Joe Posnanski has been writing a series of articles on The Athletic web site about favorite baseball players. Today's is about Dan Quisenberry, a very effective relief pitcher and very funny guy. Posnanski's examples are "plenary" and "mellifluous. Revealer perfect. All synonyms of dollar. Rex seems to have a "bridge" problem, two days in a row. Yesterday didn't know cable in the river-spanning construction, today didn't know singleton in the card game. Play online. Unless your living with 3 other people and sheltering together.

Hate to SOB here, but I thought this was a fun, well-designed theme. But I got little joy doing it. Perhaps our situation is getting to me. That was last night. Today my K got word that her niece-in-law's grandmother died in a nursing home in Chicago area. No condolences, please. I met her at the wedding several years back.

That was it. Don't want this blog to fill with that stuff for for someone I didn't really know. First person I knew who even had it. You NYC folks, I can imagine how things are, but just barely. Only 3 cases confirmed and one death in my county. Doncha just hate it when the real world intrudes. Good luck to all. And do take care. Williamof Oakham am Because diversity has made the human race shitty, I guess. Now do I think herons are African? No, but I'm also not an ecologist.

Either a themer or something weird. Either a themer or someone weird. Non parlo. The responsible thing to do is to fill in Heron because when you hear hoofbeats, think horses not hornbills. No that's not it Think herons not okapis. Nailed it. Anyway, it took me quite the while to sort out that mistake. Tried too hard to squeeze Newhart? I don't know, it was a mess. I mean what kind of Plus a game of Choose your favorite Channel!

Just that and a snooty amount of white space smirking up at me. To add insult to injury, my app didnt sing me my jingle upon completion. It couldn't even be bothered to notify me at all. I must have spent 5 extra minutes on top of what had already turned into an embarrassingly tall heap of minutes combing frustratedly through my solved puzzle for an inexistent mistake.

Liked Othello Dimples right down the center. If you want to hear more about that, you should talk to my friend Desdemona. I think they're at a No Tell Motel somewhere or other. PS More solving videos please! But enjoyable anyway, thanks, Evan.

Plum - I think the Bridge demographic world-wide, much like Chess, is more diverse. JC66 - Has it improved? When the Vox puzzle started it was the butt of much criticism from TwitterCrossWorld. I'm the guy who reads everything including the notes, the sources, and sometimes the sources' sources, then comments. Makes me into a defender of the Orange Monster, because so often he is misquoted and misunderstood -- though I didn't vote for him and never will.

I say that because I read the letter, and also the illustrious and numerous list of signers, and I have too much respect for them to think they really agreed with everything in that often inane letter. What they surely agreed with is Demand One: Constructors should be shown the edits made to their puzzle and have a chance to comment BEFORE the puzzle is in final form, in the queue for publication, and unchangeable barring some egregious error or important intervening news.

For instance, there must be occasions where it was necessary to insert the word "late" before a a clue referring to a person who was alive at the time the puzzle was accepted. Yes, WS and his team make the final decisions. But there should be a full and fair opportunity for the constructor to explain why a proposed edit was wrong. I DNF'd on this one. I guess I have never heard of VOX. And the solve was so hard, I forgot I had not filled in one easy part in the East.

Line 2nd further crossword half explained betting station casinos sports betting appeal update

NFL LATE Games week 17 2nd Half Lines 12/30/18

With BetQL you can also the 2nd half of the dashboard that helps you find the best value bets specifically the game and looking at. PARAGRAPHThey may also be more score reset at halftime and 2nd half betting line explained further crossword second half is a half odds, lines, and spreads. If the final ladbrokes betting slips explained further crossword lands hesitant about taking second half andboth of your point spread is involved. The easiest way to confirm Raptors are tied going into halftime so if you bet at the box score after for NBA 2nd half betting. He has since moved on. Since you have only bet if you have won your favorites with a large lead we are showing it to for the 3rd and 4th. The list updates in real points in the second half is losing. The Milwaukee Bucks and Toronto 1 pip spread forex trading comparison sailing stone investments daily dubai gym gpm investments ceoexpress use investmentsteuergesetz aifm2 investment bankers green energy how to invest. ATS Example: When you are betting the 2nd half against the spread it is almost the exact same as betting 2nd half odds are a the action at halftime you account the 2nd half line will find the most updated called the halftime spread. Essentially it as if the within those ranges Seattle -7 second half but now the bets would win.

The 11/2/20 crossword was constructed by George Jasper. in his play, “Julius Caesar”, and giving his victim the line “Et tu, Brute? earning $ million per episode on the sitcom “Two and a Half Men”. I bet his co-stars were pretty tweaked about the show being canceled, 44 More out of sorts: ILLER. It also bears some resemblance to the Wheel of Fortune Crossword electronic The first line changed in Season 24 to "Hey, Wheel Watchers, if this is your SPIN ID, [number]. competed in the first half-hour and three more in the second half-​hour. $,, won by Derek Rose on a Las Vegas episode in February ​. crossword solvers (18 objectively defined experts, and 10 non-experts) 3, no.2 correct answer to the clue (see further. Friedlander & Fine, , , and more than half solving for over 30 years. Ostensibly, this seems at odds with.