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In this work, four chromatographic methods have been developed to obtain the most suitable chromatographic method conditions for measuring woody feedstocks, lignocellulosic hydrolysates and cellulose pulp in sulphite pulping processes. The analysis of major and minor monosaccharides, aliphatic carboxylic acids and furfurals has been optimised. An important drawback of the spent liquors generated after sulphite pulping is their acidic nature, high viscosity and adhesive properties that interfere in the column lifetime.

This work recommends both a CHOPb column for the sugar analysis and an SH resin- based cross-linked gel column to separate low-molecular-weight chain acids, alcohols and furfurals. Such columns resulted in a good separation with long lifetime, wide pH operating range and low fouling issues. Immunostimulation and yellow head virus YHV disease resistance induced by a lignin- based pulping by- product in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Linn.

Yellow head virus YHV is classified as one of the most serious pathogens causing a harmful disease in many penaeids, especially black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon , with high economic loss. To determine a potent and practical prophylactic strategy for controlling this disease, the toxicity of the by- product kraft lignin and its ability to control severe YHV infection were investigated in juvenile black tiger shrimp Lignin was further added to shrimp diets via top-dressing to assess its ability to elicit immune stimulation activity.

The antiviral activity of lignin against YHV in black tiger shrimp was notable in vitro because compared to control shrimp This information will facilitate the development of practical methods to control yellow head disease in the marine shrimp culture industry.

Scale up of ethanol production using pulp mill wastewater sludge by cellulase and saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of pulp mill wastewater sludge as substrate in ethanol production. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was conducted by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR under optimum proportion of cellulase and pulp mill wastewater sludge. The ethanol production from cellulosic materials in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation needs cooperation between cellulase and yeast.

The cellulase hydrolyzes cellulose to sugar while yeast utilizes sugar to produce ethanol. The pulp mill wastewater sludge has an average content of The experimental results indicated that the volume of the ethanol tend to increase with time, providing the maximum ethanol yield of 0. The ethanol production was scaled up in 5 L fermentor under optimum proportion and increased the fermentation period. It was found that the ethanol production gave the maximum ethanol yield of 1.

These results showed that the cellulose from pulp mill wastewater sludge was as effective substrate for ethanol production and alternative energy for the future. Proangiogenic prolyl hydroxylase PHD inhibitors represent a novel approach to stimulate tissue regeneration. Diabetes mellitus involves the accumulation of advanced glycation end products AGEs.

Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF , interleukin IL -6, and IL-8 production was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Furthermore, expression levels of odontoblast markers were assessed, and alizarin red staining was performed. Pulp tissue vitality and morphology were assessed by MTT assay and histology.

Stimulation with L-MIM decreased alkaline phosphatase levels and matrix mineralization also in the presence of AGEs, whereas no significant changes in dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression were observed. The pulp tissue was vital, and no signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed.

Overall, in the presence of AGEs, L-MIM increases the proangiogenic capacity, but decreases alkaline phosphatase expression and matrix mineralization. Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution.

This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry. In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production.

Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. Many new products development with CNCs have been studied intensively. However, little life-cycle analysis LCA has been conducted for the Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties.

Zhu; C. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp TMP. Both whole-log chips primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs Effect of process parameters on the dryness of molded pulp products. Molded pulp products are made from cellulose fibers dispersed in water then formed, drained and dried.

As in the conventional papermaking process, the most energ yintensive operation including time is drying. To gain a better understanding of the process parameters involved and to investigate Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union.

Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp , although with less inorganics.

Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes.

Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain. For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production : modelling of the anaerobic digestion process.

Both continuous and batch experiments The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods. The studies revealed that production parameters pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources.

In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp , the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index CrI of cellulose were investigated. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp.

The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens pulp for fruit wine production.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens DC O. Berg in the production of a beverage fermented using selected and wild yeasts from indigenous fermentation, analyze the volatile compounds profile present during the process of fermentation, and evaluate the sensory quality of the final beverage produced. Throughout the process of fermentation, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA was inoculated, there were stable viable populations around 9 log cells ml During indigenous fermentation, yeast population increased from 3.

The diversity and dynamics of the yeast population during indigenous fermentation observed by PFGE analysis showed five different karyotyping profiles in the first days of fermentation. After the seventh day, there was a higher frequency of a similar S. The yeast non-Saccharomyces were identified by sequencing of the ITS region as Candida quercitrusa and Issatchenkia terricola. Inoculated fermentations yielded a higher amount of alcohol than indigenous ones, indicating the efficiency of selected strains.

There was also a greater concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavor found in alcoholic beverages. Based on the characteristics of the pulp and acceptance in the sensory analysis, gabiroba fruits showed good potential for use in the production of fermented beverage. Mucopolysaccharidosis enzyme production by bone marrow and dental pulp derived human mesenchymal stem cells. Mucopolysaccharidoses MPS are inherited metabolic disorders that arise from a complete loss or a reduction in one of eleven specific lysosomal enzymes.

MPS children display pathology in multiple cell types leading to tissue and organ failure and early death. Mesenchymal stem cells MSCs give rise to many of the cell types affected in MPS, including those that are refractory to current treatment protocols such as hematopoietic stem cell HSC based therapy.

Over-expression of four different lysosomal enzymes resulted in up to fold and up to fold greater levels in MSC cell layer and media respectively. Transduction of MSCs did not affect the ability of the cells to differentiate down osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic lineages, but did partially delay differentiation down the non-mesodermal neurogenic lineage.

New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production. Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end- product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy.

An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Potential of impulse drying technology for molded pulp products manufacture.

The vision of the Green Fiber Bottle GFB project is to develop a paper bottle for beer, which will be both recyclable and biodegradable. The early prototypes of the bottle are very promising but there are huge technical and scientific challenges ahead to mature the production technology The possibility of applying the concept of impulse drying during the drying stage is suggested. This would give benefits in terms of productivity and it would also reduce energy consumption.

With the aim of understanding and controlling the impulse drying phenomena, a simplified approach is proposed. Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious GD and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" MRM , and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures.

Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents MeOH and EtOAc. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps.

Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Fractionation and characterization of saccharides and lignin components in wood prehydrolysis liquor from dissolving pulp production. Saccharides and lignin components in prehydrolysis liquor PHL from kraft- based dissolving pulp production was characterized after being fractionated using membrane filtration.

The results showed that the membrane filtration provided a method for organics fractionation with considerable recovery rate, but exhibited some disadvantages. Besides the limited ability in purifying oligosaccharides OS due to the overlaps of molecular weight distribution with lignin components, the membrane filtration could not improve the homogeneity of OS as indicated by the analysis of chemical compositions and the degree of polymerization DP , which may be ascribed to the linear conformation of OS.

The characterization of lignin components indicated a great potential for polymer industry because of the remarkable content of phenolic hydroxyl groups PhOH , especially for low molecular weight LMW fraction. It was concluded the organics in PHL provided streams of value-added chemicals. However, the practical significance thereof can be realized and maximized only when they are successfully and completely fractionated.

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production. Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme 0. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T. The enzyme activity of 2. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model.

The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. The growth data obtained for E. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2. The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition.

The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase PG and pectin metyl esterase PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis.

In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional 3D hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells DPSCs to produce a functional dental pulp -like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan- based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes.

In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence IF staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp -like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue.

Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. A hyaluronan- based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp -like tissue. Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis.

Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase. Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz pulp , produced in large amounts as a by- product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries.

To effectively utilize the cassava pulp , an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction C for 1 h , followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample.

Cynara cardunculus L. The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0. The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees.

The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp , giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation. The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia.

In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource. This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system.

Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass mixed SCP biomass composition, such as total crude protein analyzed by kjedhal method and lignin content TAPPI method. Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft- based dissolving pulp. The aim of this study was to investigate a combined process involving pulp fractionation and cellulase treatment of each fraction for improving the molecular weight distribution MWD and reactivity of a kraft- based dissolving pulp.

Three pulp fractions, namely long-fiber, mid-fiber and short-fiber fractions LF, MF and SF, respectively , were used as the substrates. The results showed that the SF had the highest accessibility, lowest viscosity, and highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while the opposite was true for the LF. At a given viscosity, the combined process led to a lower polydispersity index 3. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour.

Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp ; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp. Fruit used were selected and processed. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value.

The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers pulp and flour, minerals potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C. Koutrouli, E. In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C.

This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2. It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process.

It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments. Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers. The use of organic foods has been increased in the world.

Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production. Identification of yeasts Isolated from processed and frozen cocoa Theobroma cacao pulp for wine production. Full Text Available The alternative use of cocoa Theobroma cacao for wine production was tested. Isolates characterized as fermentative were further tested in a small-scale wine production plant and identified. Species from the genus Brettanomyces constituted the main fermentative yeasts, with the exception of two Kloeckera apis samples.

The final wine product was normally pale or clear, making clarification unnecessary, and with a sweet or dry pleasant flavor. The predominance of Brettanomyces species in cocoa pulp indicated its ecological importance in this environment and pointed to an active role of Brettanomyces in the deterioration process of the processed cocoa pulp.

Reductions in greenhouse gas emissions and oil use by DME di-methyl ether and FT Fischer-Tropsch diesel production in chemical pulp mills. Using energy systems analysis, we examine the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions and oil use by integrating motor biofuel production with pulp mills.

The studied systems are expanded with stand-alone production of biomass- based electricity and motor fuel so that they yield the same functional unit in terms of motor fuel and electricity as well as pulp or paper product , in order to facilitate comparison. When both systems are required to produce the same functional unit, the BLG-DME system achieves higher system efficiency and larger reductions in CO 2 emissions and oil use per unit of biomass consumed.

In general, integration of motor biofuel production with a pulp mill is more efficient than stand-alone motor biofuel production. Larger reductions in CO 2 emissions or oil use can, however, be achieved if biomass replaces coal or oil in stationary applications. Joelsson, Jonas M. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Black liquor gasification gives larger reductions than solid biomass gasification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower mill steam demand increases the black liquor gasification advantage.

Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biomass directly replacing coal or oil in stationary plants gives larger reductions. Transportation fuel production from gasified biomass integrated with a pulp and paper mill — Part A: Heat integration and system performance. Production of transportation fuels from biorefineries via biomass gasification has been suggested as a way of introducing renewable alternatives in the transportation system with an aim to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere.

By co-locating gasification- based processes within heat demanding industries, excess heat from the gasification process can replace fossil or renewable fuels. The objective of this study was to compare the heat integration potential of four different gasification- based biorefinery concepts with a chemical pulp and paper mill.

Fungal treatment of hemp- based pulp and paper mill wastes Taseli Fermentative lactic acid production from coffee pulp hydrolysate using Bacillus coagulans at laboratory and pilot scales. Two different coffee pulp materials with comparable biomass composition were used, but sugar concentrations in hydrolysates showed variations. The primary sugars were gL -1 glucose , xylose , sucrose and arabinose 0. Fermentations were carried out at laboratory 2L and pilot 50L scales in presence of 10gL -1 yeast extract.

At pilot scale carbon utilization and lactic acid yield per gram of sugar consumed were The productivity was 4. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. The purpose of this paper is to study the characteristics and thermal degradation behavior of rice husk and coconut pulp for bio fuel production via flash pyrolysis technology.

The elemental properties of the feedstock were characterized by an elemental analyzer while thermal properties were investigated using thermogravimetric analyzer TGA. The investigated parameters are particle sizes and heating rates. Higher heating rates causes biomass degrades in a narrow temperature range by 25 degree Celsius. It also increases the maximum peak rate by 0. In case of coconut pulp , the change is not significant for dp 1 but for dp 2 a 0.

Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant — part B: Techno-economic analysis. In a previous study by the authors, energy efficiency measures in a conceptual kraft pulp mill converted to a lignocellulosic ethanol plant were investigated. The results suggested a number of different process designs which would give a substantial improvement in steam economy in the ethanol plant, compared to the original design.

In the present study the different process designs are evaluated from an economic point-of-view, in order to determine if energy efficiency measures and increasing by- product sales decrease the production cost of ethanol from this specific process, or if the increased costs related to the implementation of these measures overshadow the benefits from increased by- product sales.

The different energy efficiency measures are compared with less capital demanding alternatives i. The study indicates the economic importance of considering energy efficiency measures when repurposing a kraft pulp mill to an ethanol plant. It is also shown that, within the context of this study, a larger investment in measures will give better economic results than less capital demanding alternatives with less improvement in energy efficiency.

From an economic and energy efficiency viewpoint many of the suggested process designs will give approximately similar results, therefore the process design should be made based on other criteria e. Process integration study of a kraft pulp mill converted to an ethanol production plant — Part A: Potential for heat integration of thermal separation units. Energy efficiency is an important parameter for the profitability of biochemical ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw material.

The yield of ethanol is generally low due to the limited amount of fermentable compounds in the raw material. Increasing energy efficiency leads to possibilities of exporting more by- products , which in turn might reduce the net production cost of ethanol. Energy efficiency is also an important issue when discussing the repurposing of kraft pulp mills to biorefineries, since the mills in question most likely will be old and inefficient.

Investing in energy efficiency measures might therefore have a large effect on the economic performance. This paper discusses energy efficiency issues related to the repurposing of a kraft pulp mill into a lignocellulosic ethanol production plant. The studied process is a typical Scandinavian kraft pulp mill that has been converted to a biorefinery with ethanol as main product.

A process integration study, using pinch analysis and process simulations, has been performed in order to assess alternative measures for improving the energy efficiency. In a forthcoming paper, which is the second part of this process integration study, an economic analysis based on the results from this paper will be presented.

Use of coffee Coffea arabica pulp for the production of briquettes and pellets for heat generation. Full Text Available Coffee bean Coffea arabica processing generates high amount of residues that are sources of environmental pollution. Therefore, an appropriate solution is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of coffee pulp to produce briquettes and pellets.

The study included pulp drying using air, solar and hot air methods; the production of briquettes and pellets; the evaluation of their energy, physical and mechanical properties; and the evaluation of pellet quality using X-ray densitometry. The ash content was 8.

The density of the briquettes was 1, kg m-3, compared with 1, kg m-3 for the pellets. The apparent densities were 1, kg m-3 and kg m-3 for the briquettes and pellets, respectively, and the water absorptions by the briquettes were 7. The maximum horizontal compression effort was The maximum horizontal load was The value of the pellet durability test was X-ray densitometry showed that the pellet was uniform and a few cracks were observed on the pellet surface.

Effects of citrus pulp , fish by- product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp , fish by- product , and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility ATTD of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal- based basal diet supplemented with 0 control , 2. Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio G:F in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter DM , gross energy GE , and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5. The effects of microorganism on coffee pulp pretreatment as a source of biogas production.

Full Text Available Coffee pulp waste composition consist of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, pectin and caffeine, tannin, and polyphenol as inhibitor substance. The high cellulose compound in coffee pulp can be used for alternative raw materials in the manufacture of biogas. This study aims to define the composition of the mixture of microorganisms of Pseudomonas putida, Trichoderma harzianum, and Aspergillus niger that are best to use in coffee pulp pretreatment to degrade inhibitor substance.

The best result of pretreatment will be applied to biogas production. The first step is to do a pretreatment of the coffee pulp with variable Pseudomonas putida : Trichoderma harzianum : Aspergillus niger with a ratio of , , , , , , v:v:v, then variables that are most excellent in degrading inhibitor substance are selected. This study results a composition of ingredients within the pretreatment process which includes a mixture of microorganisms with a ratio of Pseudomonas putida : Trichoderma harzianum : Aspergillus niger is v:v:v.

At the concentration of methane is 1. Assessment of age based on the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors. Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to estimate the age of the patients belonging to the age group of 15 - 55 years, attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, St.

Joseph Dental College and Hospital, Eluru, based on the radiographic evaluation of the pulp cavity width of the maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of subjects. Intraoral periapical radiographs of the maxillary central incisors were taken for all subjects, using the conventional paralleling angle technique and the pulp cavity width was measured at the cervical and middle third using a digital vernier caliper.

The data obtained was subjected to correlation and regression analysis. Cubic regression analysis was done and the regression formulae were obtained. A mean difference of 0. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the width of the pulp cavity of maxillary central incisors are reliable for estimation of age. Acid- base synergistic flame retardant wood pulp paper with high thermal stability.

Acid-catalytic degradation caused by acid source flame retardants is the main reason for a decline in thermal stability of flame-retarded lignocellulosic materials. As a basic flame retardant, borax could chemically combine with the acids released by guanidine phosphate, thus decreasing the acidity of the system in the initial heating stage. Meanwhile, borax was also advantageous to form a denser and firmer condensed phase through reinforcement of the acid- base reaction product , borophosphates, allowing it to provide a protective barrier with higher quality.

A rat direct pulp capping model was prepared using perforated rat upper first molars capped with mineral trioxide aggregate cement. Caffeic acid production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of kraft pulp using recombinant Escherichia coli.

Caffeic acid 3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid serves as a building block for thermoplastics and a precursor for biologically active compounds and was recently produced from glucose by microbial fermentation. To produce caffeic acid from inedible cellulose, separate hydrolysis and fermentation SHF and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF reactions were compared using kraft pulp as lignocellulosic feedstock.

Here, a tyrosine-overproducing Escherichia coli strain was metabolically engineered to produce caffeic acid from glucose by introducing the genes encoding a 4-hydroxyphenyllactate 3-hydroxylase hpaBC from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and tyrosine ammonia lyase fevV from Streptomyces sp.

Caffeic acid yield was also negatively correlated with the glucose concentration in the fermentation medium. In SHF, the formation of by- product acetate and the accumulation of potential fermentation inhibitors increased significantly with kraft pulp hydrolysate than filter paper hydrolysate. The combination of these inhibitors had synergistic effects on caffeic acid fermentation at low concentrations. With lower loads of cellulase in SSF, less potential fermentation inhibitors furfural, 5-hydroxymethyfurfural, and 4-hydroxylbenzoic acid accumulated in the medium.

These observations suggest that glucose limitation in SSF is crucial for improving caffeic acid yield, owing to reduced by- product formation and fermentation inhibitor accumulation. The studies revealed that production parameters pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced.

The maximum yield was obtained at the pH of 2 with citric acid of 1. The results of this study are encouraging and suggest that Parkia biglobosa pulp can be harnessed at low concentration for large scale citric acid production. Production of methane by co-digestion of cassava pulp with various concentrations of pig manure.

Therefore, in this study we are considering its potential as a raw material substrate for the production of methane. To ensure sufficient amounts of nutrients for the anaerobic digestion process, the potential of co-digestion of cassava pulp CP with pig manure PM was further examined. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor CSTR operated under mesophilic condition 37 C and at a constant OLR of 3.

The results showed that co-digestion resulted in higher methane production and reduction of volatile solids VS but lower buffering capacity. This was probably due to an increase in available easily degradable carbohydrates as the CP ratio in feedstock increased. The effect of the co-substrate mixture ratio was carried out in a semi-continuously fed stirred tank reactor CSTR operated under mesophilic condition 37 o C and at a constant OLR of 3.

The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp : vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E.

In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic C Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. We analyzed the chemical composition, and two formulations of breads were prepared with Reuse of wastewater from pulp industry for the optimization of fungal xylanase production.

Full Text Available The production of enzymes using agro-industrial waste is a low cost alternative for the reuse of byproducts, with the subsequent impact decrease on the environment. Current analysis produced xylanase using fungus Aspergillus niger, with two types of wastewater generated during the pulp chemical bleaching phase as inducers. Xylanase was produced by submerged liquid fermentation and factorial design optimized parameters that influence production concentration of wastewater and production period.

Initial culture conditions pH, temperature and agitation were optimized independently. Despite different results, acidic and alkaline wastewaters induced xylanase production by A. Alkaline wastewater is highlighted as the most efficient for such production. Implementation of an UASB anaerobic digester at bagasse- based pulp and paper industry. Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket UASB reactor was installed to replace the conventional anaerobic lagoon treating bagasse wash wastewater from agro- based pulp and paper mill, to generate bio-energy and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

The plant was designed to treat 12 ML d -1 of wastewater having two 5 ML capacity reactors, 5. In 11 months 4. Utilization of the biogas in the Lime Kiln saved 2. Besides significant economic benefits, furnace oil saving reduced 6. Optimum dose of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate based bonding material on pulp cells toxicity. Background: 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate HEMA , one type of resins commonly used as bonding base material, is commonly used due to its advantageous chemical characteristics.

Several preliminary studies indicated that resin is a material capable to induce damage in dentin- pulp complex. It is necessary to perform further investigation related with its biological safety for hard and soft tissues in oral cavity. The goal of this study was to establish mini-swine as a large animal model for stem cell- based pulp regeneration studies. Swine dental pulp stem cells sDPSCs were isolated from mini-swine and characterized in vitro. For in vivo studies, we first employed both ectopic and semi-orthotopic study models using severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

We found that sDPSCs are similar to their human counterparts exhibiting mesenchymal stem cell characteristics with ability to form colony forming unit-fibroblastic and odontogenic differentiation potential. We then tested orthotopic pulp regeneration on mini-swine including the use of multi-rooted teeth. Using autologous sDPSCs carried by hydrogel and transplanted into the mini-swine root canal space, we observed regeneration of vascularized pulp -like tissue with a layer of newly deposited dentin-like rD tissue or osteodentin along the canal walls.

In some cases, dentin bridge-like structure was observed. Immunohistochemical analysis detected the expression of nestin, dentin sialophosphoprotein, dentin matrix protein 1, and bone sialoprotein in odontoblast-like cells lining against the produced rD. We also tested the use of allogeneic sDPSCs for the same procedures. Similar findings were observed in allogeneic transplantation.

This study is the first to show an establishment of mini-swine as a suitable large animal model utilizing multi-rooted teeth for further cell- based pulp regeneration studies. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process. Wood pulping hydrolysate WPH containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol ABE fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation.

Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. Integrated production method for wood fuel and pulp wood in Northern Finland; Integroitu energiapuun tuotanto-menetelmae Pohjois-Suomessa.

Hooli Oy, operating mainly in the Northern Finland has developed the production method suitable for bunch-processing of small wood. The mobile machine, consisting of delimber-debarker, and fuel fraction crusher units, produces debarked stemwood for pulping industry and branchwood-bark chips for thermal power stations. The basic method has been ready for demonstration and practical applications since in the beginning of year The objective of the project is to develop a method suitable for bundle processing of small wood, in which the trees are delimbed and debarked, and the formed waste wood is crushed using a machine unit, developed especially for this purpose.

The method is based on utilisation of a separate delimbing-debarking unit, which operates separately from the pulpwood transportation chain, so the pulpwood transportations can be done at the proper time either as debarked roundwood or chips. Based on field experiments in - , to attain the targets of the project looks promising. In there will happen technical modifications to the machine to improve the debarking results target productivity of the whole production chain. Production of xylanases by mangrove fungi from the Philippines and their application in enzymatic pretreatment of recycled paper pulps.

Mangrove fungi are vastly unexplored for enzymes with industrial application. This study aimed to assess the biocatalytic activity of mangrove fungal xylanases on recycled paper pulp. Forty-four mangrove fungal MF isolates were initially screened for xylanolytic activity in minimal medium with corn cob xylan as the sole carbon source. Eight MF were further cultivated under submerged fermentation for the production of crude xylanases.

These crude enzymes were then characterized and tested for the pretreatment of recycled paper pulps. In submerged fermentation, salinity improved the growth of the fungal isolates but did not influence xylanase production. Changes in pH had a greater effect on xylanase stability than temperature. More than half of the activity was lost at pH 9 for majority of the crude enzymes.

However, two thermophilic xylanases from Fusarium sp. MACA-J were also produced. The release of high amounts of reducing sugars showed the potential of mangrove fungal crude xylanases in the local paper and pulp industry. The diverse properties shown by the tested crude enzymes also indicate its potential applications to other enzyme-requiring industries. HMGB1 binds to related cell signaling transduction receptors, including receptor for advanced glycation end products RAGE, which actively participate in vascular and inflammatory diseases.

Upregulated expression of RAGE was observed in odontoblasts, stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells, and endothelial-like cell lining human pulpitis tissue. Strong cytoplasmic HMGB1 immunoreactivity was noted in odontoblasts, whereas nuclear HMGB1 immunoreactivity was seen in stromal pulp fibroblasts-like cells in human pulpitis tissue. Improved biohydrogen production and treatment of pulp and paper mill effluent through ultrasonication pretreatment of wastewater.

However, pretreatments were needed for degrading the complex structure of PPME before biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to gain further insight into the effect of an ultrasonication process on PPME as a pretreatment method and on photofermentative biohydrogen production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides NCIMB. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using ultrasonication as a pretreatment for PPME because the yield and rate of biohydrogen production were highly enhanced compared to the raw PPME.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the water sorption, solubility, pH and ability to diffuse into dentin of a glycerol salicylate- based , pulp -capping cement in comparison to a conventional calcium hydroxide- based pulp capping material Hydcal. Water sorption and solubility were determined based on mass changes in the samples before and after the immersion in distilled water for 7 days.

Material discs were stored in distilled water for 24 h, 7 days and 28 days, and a digital pHmeter was used to measure the pH of water. The cement's ability to diffuse into bovine dentin was assessed by Raman spectroscopy. The glycerol salicylate- based cement presented higher water sorption and lower solubility than Hydcal.

The pH of water used to store the samples increased for both cements, reaching Both cements were able to turn alkaline the medium at 24 h and sustain its alkalinity after 28 days. The experimental glycerol salicylate- based cement presents good sorption, solubility, ability to alkalize the surrounding tissues and diffusion into dentin to be used as pulp capping material.

The use of sugar beet pulp lignin for the production of vanillin. The objectives of this work is to produce vanillin from sugar beet pulp by lignin oxidation and evaluate the effect of process parameters temperature, partial pressure of oxygen, reaction time, CuSO 4 as a catalyst on the yield of vanillin. Purification and separation of vanillin from pressurized extract was carried out by organic solvent and crystallization. Results showed that production of vanillin was significantly affected by four parameters, and an optimal conditions for production of vanillin was found 4.

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of different sugar beet pulp SBP pretreatments on biogas yield from anaerobic digestion. SBP was subjected to grinding, thermal-pressure processing, enzymatic hydrolysis, or combination of these pretreatments. It was observed that grinding of SBP to 2. The highest cumulative biogas productivity , The latter pretreatment variant enabled to achieve the highest glucose concentration The analysis of energy balance showed that the increase in the number of SBP pretreatment operations significantly reduced the gain of electric energy.

Variability analysis of industrial process puree by means of concentrated vegetable pulps , based on the engineering quality. Full Text Available The instability in quality characteristics: physical-chemical of puree by means of the concentrate plant pulps , can provoke customer dissatisfaction and deterioration of the image of products.

With the statistical analysis of the industrial process, was determined as the main cause of erratic behaviour, variability in plant pulps of different suppliers: the different varieties of raw materials and the technologies they used. The solution was established by the quality engineering for improving control and in this case was optimized the product design, consisted on the mixtures of pulps reformulation to ensure initial insensitivity of initial variability that provokes raw material, in this way was achieved the robustness of the process, with positive impact on the production results, both economic and company image to customers.

In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand COD and remove residual lignin from the effluen PHA production by mixed cultures: a way to valorize wastes from pulp industry.

In this work, hardwood spent sulfite liquor HSSL , a complex feedstock originating from the pulp industry, was tested for the first time as a substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate PHA production by a mixed microbial culture MMC under aerobic dynamic feeding ADF conditions. Bacteria belonging to the three main classes were identified: Alpha- Agriculture: A Brief History. World Population: Three Views. Ethics in Agriculture and Other Disciplines. Seeking Common Ground.

Ethical Puzzles. Back Matter Pages About this book Introduction I write because I am concerned that I and my agricultural colleagues have avoided addressing the moral dimension of the environmental and social problems we have contributed to. I hope for an exchange of ideas about agriculture's moral dilemmas. I encourage my readers to engage in a collective conversation about the dilemmas and avoid remaining in what Merton calls "the collective arrogance and despair of his own herd.

The book's goal is not to resolve the moral dilemmas raised. It is to raise them and encourage thought and discussion. It will ask but not answer why nearly all involved in agriculture have not addressed the moral concerns voiced by the general public. The agricultural enterprise is committed to the benefits and future success of the present, very productive, chemical, capital, and energy intensive system, which is, in the minds of many, not sustainable.

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Based on this co-operation, a tourism strategy organized, which tourism segments are being targeted, for Lapland has been formulated and is revised every what are the key development trends and what are the four years. Visit Northern Norway was established in ater a merger of separate destination management organi- 5. It has vious government to reduce the number of destination existed in its current form since , and the main fo- management organizations, with funding provided to cus of the organization is the branding and marketing the merged organizations for a three-year period.

Inno- of tourism in the Faroe Islands. Visit Faroe Islands col- vation Norway has the role of a national tourist board. In Northern Nor- Greenland and a government-owned agency for the de- way, the local destinations are organized diferently: velopment of tourism in Greenland. It has existed in its some have an industry association that is either funded current form since Visit Greenland presents six or co-funded by the municipalities, some have only a regional destinations on its website.

In most cases, municipalities and fully inanced by local companies. It has not been inance a tourist information oice. Today Visit tablished to improve the competitiveness of Icelandic Northern Norway is funded by the three county coun- companies in foreign markets. Its department of Tour- cils, and the tourist board is becoming a more active ism and Creative Industries aims to attract tourists to partner in tourism development projects.

With the ongoing project Local dress diferent interest groups. In is a dynamic knowledge organization. Local organization and marketing initiatives for Map 15 provides an overview of overnight stays by cruise tourism are organized diferently across the foreign citizens in Only in Greenland is the tourist board, Lapland region were the most popular destinations for in this case Visit Greenland, responsible for market- international tourists.

From the total number of over- ing both land-based and cruise tourism. National organization Cruise Iceland has been established to diferences exist. In the Faroe Islands, Greenland and co-ordinate the promotion of Iceland as a cruise ship Northern Sweden, the majority of visitors came from destination with harbour oices that manage the pro- the other Nordic countries. In Finland, the largest motion of local destinations. Similarly, in Norway, the groups of visitors were from Russia and the UK, while organization Cruise Northern Norway and Svalbard Germans were the largest group visiting Northern has been established to promote cruise tourism.

Map 16 ested in nature and culture is the most common way of shows the number of cruise ship calls to Nordic Arctic describing tourists travelling to the Arctic. Some of the DMOs are focusing of Greenland, where only data from are available. Swedish Lapland Visitors Board operates using sengers and calls. It does not show regular, scheduled the deinitions of the national tourist board Visit Swe- ferry connections such as Hurtigruten in Norway.

Longyearbyen received ing promotion activities Visit Greenland, A number generally prioritize experiences over comfort. Passenger data for the Faroe Islands laboration are only available at the national level. In Iceland, some nations across Greenland in Because sat, Maniitsoq and Kangerlussuaq.

In addition, Uum- of the volume of tourists, there is also substantial pres- mannaq, Qeqertarsuaq, Qaqortoq and Nuuk had more sure on some of the most popular destinations in Ice- than 20 calls each. Notably, Qaqortoq had the most land. A number of innovation and development projects As will be further elaborated in Section 5. For example, from the tourism of cultural tourism, food tourism and health tourism segment study in Greenland, it was found that expedi- services.

Key activities of NATA involve organizing many they are targeting. Year-round tourism destina- the annual West Norden Travel Mart, providing grants tions are developing in Reykjavik and Southern Iceland for tourism development and marketing projects, and as well as in the Akureyri area. Tourism experiences in the Faroe Islands are in- The North Calotte region creasingly developed based on traditions of hospitality Finnish Lapland has in previous years experienced the and knitting; e.

Knit- dently, rather than in traditional group trips and ac- ting is also associated with a number of Faroese-based tivities. Fol- famous. Nature-based adventure experiences such as lowing this trend, the small-scale entrepreneurs and bungee jumping and climbing have started to develop. Marketing oten uses targeted strategies opened up in recent years.

Another start-ups being founded by younger people, some of distinctive trend is the wellness theme, consisting of whom have higher education in tourism management. Authen- Interreg co-funded project called Visit Arctic Europe tic cultural experiences such as eating locally produced was initiated between Visit Northern Norway, Swed- food and experiencing Sami culture are other visible ish Lapland Visitors Board and the Finnish Lapland development trends.

Winter tourism in particular has Tourist Board. In Sweden also, there is a demand from tourists to experience the local food culture, and Swedish Lapland 5. Furthermore, there the objective of doubling the size of the tourism indus- is an increasing demand for Sami culture experiences try in terms of the number of jobs and tourists by the by tourists.

An improved approach to collecting data for veloped is in Kiruna. Abisko is another area that way to meeting the target. A strategic priority is to pro- is experiencing increasing tourism, because of the na- long the tourism season, and one way in which this is tional park, hiking opportunities in summer and the approached is through more focused eforts to promote Northern Lights in winter.

However, in the autumn of , an and extension of the tourism season. Attempts to extend tourism bility but also that of social and environmental sustain- seasons difer between destinations. In Ilulissat, this ability in development initiatives. Another priority is for more tourism during July and August, where there is substantial free actors to become professional businesses that can re- capacity. A project, in collaboration with the airlines, is ceive foreign tourists.

Competence development is im- currently developing a brand for the capital as a sum- portant, and there is a need for more tourism-related mer destination. Iceland has a tourism development strategy for — The key actors funds. Initially, the actors were reactive from the side of both the local authorities and brought together by the cluster initiative Arena Innova- the tourism industry, and with the local strategic devel- tive Experiences.

The project, funded by the for — According to the document, Lapland national Arena Programme for cluster development, strives to be a vital, international, easily accessible and was intertwined with a project funded by the national year-around destination.

Today, the network Innovative Experiences is partly tives related to accessibility, product development and funded as a membership organization and is managed marketing. Nordland Research Institute and Uni- clude becoming more involved in development projects versity of Nordland have established the Norwegian Research Centre for Experience-based Tourism NO- in the region and improving marketing approaches.

They now host events necessity for the marketing of the region to correspond such as monthly tourism lunches, where the industry with the experiences of the tourist. However, the supply of Sami ex- implemented, comprising a consortium of tourism periences is limited in the region, it is rare to meet Sami research establishments in Northern Norway.

The national programmes to support cluster development and regionally imple- ment project Sami Tourism in Northern Norway. Swedish Lapland Tourism in- tends to strengthen collaboration in terms of research Box Association of Arctic Expedition and education with knowledge and higher education Cruise Operators—sustainability initiatives The Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators institutions.

AECO is a membership organization for expedi- Establishing stronger links to knowledge institu- tion cruise operators, tour operators, port agents and tions is the ambition for some of the destination man- travel agencies. It was established in with the agement organizations in the Nordic Arctic. Today, the organization is successfully initiated with a number of tourism irms. Cruise tourism is a form The visitor guidelines are developed for the expedition of mass tourism, and as such, it has a number of impli- cruise tourists and describe to the tourists how they are expected to show consideration for the environ- cations in terms of sustainable tourism development ment, safety and culture of communities visited.

Site guidelines have also been developed for some local destinations in Greenland. Parts of the guide- to crowding of remote peripheral communities. In consideration of sustain- of trash and pollutants, and impacts from dredging able tourism development, the operational guidelines and building associated with the construction of new include the following four headlines. Cruise tourism involves short-term daily inluxes of large numbers of people, whereas the about local history, contemporary culture, norms and land-based tourists are usually dispersed more broad- values.

Research has found that cruise tourism is oten eco- According to a representative of Visit Greenland, the nomically unsustainable because the majority of eco- work of AECO has been extremely important for their nomic beneits do not low to local people. Instead, a increasing calls in smaller settlements in the country. If passengers are tivities appeal to an aluent global market, although unhappy, they will usually blame the shore provider, the number of visitors is small, as the prices of these unaware that the cruise ship has retained most of the activities are high.

More afordable indigenous tourism excursion fee Klein, In some he risk of misrepresenting Sami culture in tourism cases, passengers will choose to stay on board the ves- promotion and in the development of tourism products sel instead of disembarking because the ships are des- exists.

Examples of this type of development include tinations in themselves. Association of Arctic Expedition Cruise Operators Furthermore, there is a tendency to create an exotic AECO to promote responsible expedition cruise and exaggerated image of the Sami in the media and tourism. These ships do not travel on a direct route but he main constraints for Sami tourism development rather focus on viewing landscapes at close range.

Sami people themselves are divided; some stress sometimes uncharted waters, and interacting with lo- the opportunities of indigenous tourism development, cal people. Tourism development has Expedition vessels are smaller and commonly carry been noted to be a balancing act between these oppos- about passengers.

They offer an educational ex- ing views Pettersson, According to a representative of Visit Greenland, the work of AECO has been extremely important for their increasing calls in smaller settlements in the 5. Previously, expedition cruises oten showed tourism up unannounced, which led to frustration among in- Food tourism refers to a form of tourism in which food habitants, whereas today, collaboration with the local is one of the motivating factors for travel.

It can have communities and codes of conduct for visitors have diferent roles, from being the peak experience in gour- been improved. It is hoped that more local tourism met tourism to being a complementary experience in irms will be established to beneit from expedition rural tourism. Eating local food entails appropriating cruises. In connection with this, urban food tourism commonly 5.

Furthermore, food be an asset for a growing tourism industry. This concerned how the national tourist board would improve its use of Sami culture in its marketing initiatives, in order to ensure that this would be done in an ethical manner. Thus, the agreement states the following. For example, criteria concerning respect of reindeer herding, including the requirement to make an agreement with the Sami co-operatives that tourists visit.

They can tell you about it, and they are professional in taking care of the visitor in this habitat. There has been interest in the initiative from Norway particularly. This would include agreements with sponsors and with collaboration partners. Sponsorships may come from companies that wish to demonstrate that preservation of Sami culture is important. Arctic regions have been noted to have created ad- zation Swedish Lapland Visitors Board has started ad- vantages by promoting themselves in ways that associ- vertising culinary tourism.

Some of these culinary ex- ate the local geography with the slow food movement. Moreover, issues cal guide. In Sweden, two food organizations have been of food security are part of the slow food movement. For example, in Sweden, traditional hunting or ishing practices. Most hunting organizations have and sustainable regional develop- similar codes and a requirement that hunters attend compulsory education and training sessions to ensure ment hunter safety and ethical hunting practices Lovelock, Sustainable tourism has been deined as tourism that In order to ensure sustainable ishing tourism, takes full account of its current and future economic, it has been suggested the amount of information given social and environmental impacts, addressing the to ishing tourists should be increased.

In the Nordic Arctic, various types undersized ish, and providing tourists with GPS and of tourism activity exist, ranging from mass tourism, maps to help them to avoid areas with small ish and e. Furthermore, attention should be paid to catch- sumptive wildlife tourism. Maintaining a balanced de- ing species that can endure exploitation, as well as to velopment in terms of economic, socio-cultural and the joy of cooking and eating your own ish while on environmental sustainable development is challenging holiday Normann, Areas of conlict between questions include the following.

Is this an area mental views. In Norway, this debate is hampered by a for collaboration across the Nordic Arctic? Moreover, in cases where they are the two connection with mass tourism e. For example, in Lofoten, proaches? How can collaboration between local food production and the tourism industry be strengthened?

It outlines the deinition of creative production, industrial production and service produc- industries and its core concepts while also looking at tion. It has been argued that the creative industries recent research. Finally, it describes some In light of the argument that human creativity is the examples of creative industry activities in the north- ultimate economic resource, the creative industries are ernmost parts of the Nordic countries.

Florida, It has been widely predicted that indus- tries of the 21st century will to a greater extent depend on the generation of knowledge through creativity and 6. Another deinitional approach engagement in creative types of activities, including is to look at individuals and their jobs and professions.

Source: Einarsson, However, contemporary studies con- measured is likely to remain as a debated issue, even ducted on creative industries in the Arctic regions have though diferent categorizations have been made. Fol- nous art production.

While music, literature and ine lowing the shit of global investment and industrial arts have been traditionally prominent in the North, production to developing countries, such as China and Arctic ilm productions and diferent types of festi- India, the post-industrial Western countries have been vals are fairly new and successful phenomena AHDR, challenged increasingly to develop their services sector However, there are also drawn international attention to the employment po- communities where a combination of local entrepre- tential of creative industries.

However, businesses as well as cultural revival contribute to a public sector support for the creative and cultural sec- meaningful way of life in a viable community. Simultaneously, the cultural sector has traditionally been among the irst public 6. Recent studies have indicated that creative capital, One of the core challenges related to the enhance- widely deined, is likely to play a deining role in the ment of creative industries stems from the lack of clear regional transformation of remote areas and that many indicators and tools to measure and elaborate on the Arctic regions have greater-than-expected creative re- development of this sector.

Nevertheless, it is diicult to argue that the tion of feasible strategies and the ability of inancial ac- creative capital in the peripheral northern communi- tors to consider the potential of creative sectors. One explanation for these substantial creative re- sources can be drawn from arguments suggesting that 6. It has been riers and capacity shortages compared with the core argued that creative capital is critical for economic de- regions Petrov, According to Petrov , a number of globalization.

Another reason for less populated coun- Arctic regions could become test sites for implement- tries to support cultural matters is to safeguard their ing alternative strategies of regional development based independence and national characteristics Einarsson, on creative capital, and knowledge-based and cultural It also brief- terms of outmigration and outlow or down-turn of ly provides selected, depictive examples of creative in- large-scale industries.

Arctic regions face several barri- dustry sectors and cultural management activities in ers in sustaining a local creative class and attracting the region. Tak- and Map 17 looks at economy Regional Council of Lapland, b. In the Nordic Arctic, inspiration is Petrov, A minority of the raw materials. Local actors and entrepreneurs are oten festivals are based on commercial interest or private the irst ones to recognize new opportunities requiring ownership.

Even though not signiicant in terms of em- action Finnish Ministry of Education Towns, villages and communities are increasingly keen Another major cultural festival in the Nordic Arctic to showcase their culture and environment and to hemisphere is Nordic Days in Murmansk. Festivals in peripheral eral in Murmansk, the Consulate General of Finland in regions rarely provide suicient paid employment for St.

Petersburg, Murmansk Oice, the Consulate Gen- the inhabitants, but they serve as rich opportunities to eral of Sweden in St. Petersburg and the Information participate in creating cultural expressions.

Peters- and ticket fees, sales of merchandise, sponsorship and burg. Bringing together a wide range of Arctic actors, public funding are the most important sources of i- the Nordic Days include a wide range of exhibitions, nancing. A wide range of themes are represented in concerts, ilms and discussions with a focus on vital these festivals in which culture and identity play roles and contemporary issues in the North.

Film and other creative industries not and nature. Krea- to the region through the National Film Commission Nord was designed to improve the growth prospects of Norway. Einarsson, By international standards, the size of the music In the European context, KreaNord serves as a unique markets in the Nordic countries is small.

Its novel tries have been successful in exporting and branding approach and pilot projects have since been copied their music. Music has a signiicant Co-operation concerning cultural and creative impact also on exports from Iceland, particularly by industries after KreaNord has continued through indirect means; e.

Revenues from foreign The aim of this lighthouse project is to develop Nordic co-operation between the cultural and creative indus- tourism have increased substantially in recent years, tries and to promote activities in these industries. With help from funding agen- development in the long term. Film industries in the cies, these regions with limitations in terms of size and Arctic regions represent a successful example of how budget have created a lively and internationally known policy decisions and initiatives from governments, music sphere.

It is undoubtedly an in- in Norway, Sweden and Finland as a joint production dustry that has already demonstrated a sustained ca- by NRK, SVT and YLE the public-service broadcasters pacity to grow in the Nordic countries along with in- in their respective countries. Under this border initiatives. For instance, in Norway, the Sami umbrella, the northernmost design week in the world, Parliamentary Council has introduced a programme Arctic Design Week, is being annually held in Rovanie- for Sami culture with the aim of assisting and encour- mi in Finnish Lapland.

As merchandise and souvenirs, they play a role will work jointly on business development using com- in generating income via creativity, local production petence mapping, idea development, business creation and skills specialization.

At the same time, the local and development, and strategies Sami Parliament of producers, and especially Sami products, have faced Norway, Strong sectors within the creative Nordic countries be attracted? What should be done in order to create a big- Arctic does, however, include certain barriers related ger market share for peripheral creative industries?

Moreover, the Arctic creative industries are have in the development of creative industries in the inclined to achieve a balance between locally oriented Arctic? Which sectors have the most poten- Within this context, regional development initia- tial to become creative industries? How should the issue of negative externalities be addressed?

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E3A BINARY OPTIONS

LeadSongDog come howl! If the concept is too elaborate for this, wikilink to other articles or Wiktionary entries. I however still think effective is best. Do either of the sources we use here specifically convey the idea that mifepristone and prostaglandin "work as well" or "are as effective as" surgery during the the first trimester?

Can't say that I actually saw this in their summaries. Motsebboh talk , 7 January UTC. So yes should reword as agree slightly different. Have reworded. I notice that Gandydancer has reverted my deletion of the statement in the lead that birth control "can be started at once after an abortion" without bothering to cite policy. I see two problems with it which I briefly cited in my edit comment. Motsebboh talk , 9 January UTC. I see strong bias in the lead, the sources for which are largely gleaned from individuals and organizations firmly committed to the availability of the procedure.

This bias relates to the choice of facts selected for the lead and facts left unselected and, in an instance or two, the wording of those facts. For example, I suspect that the sentence "Uncomplicated abortions do not cause any long term mental or physical problems" presumably for the patient is an overstated and oversimplified summary of findings that don't show a general significant statistical link between the two, which is not the same thing.

Drinking eight cups of coffee a day may help some people, hurt others, and be an overall statistical wash in studies. While debates over the morality of abortion are mentioned toward the end of the lead I notice that the firm opposition to abortion of the world's largest religious organization, the Roman Catholic Church is not.

On the other hand the World Health Organization 's endorsement of of "safe and legal abortions" is presented in the second paragraph. In summary, I think the lead needs some work. The WHO position is not a recommendation of abortion rights it is a recommendation of safe abortions when abortion is legal, unlike the church's position, which is a moral pronouncement.

The WHO's position is directly related to abortion safety issues which MastCell claims do belong in the lead. Again, I believe that it should be returned to the lead. Per their latest guideline I'd suggest this wording or similar: "Where they are legal, the World Health Organization recommends safe abortions be available to all women. I have restored it as a relevant position of one of the if not the most authoritative medical body there is. Given the extensive promulgation of misinformation about abortion c.

Separating advocacy arguments from medical content helps with this goal, in my view. As a gentle reminder, this page is subject to 1RR; I think there have been a couple of violations recently, but nothing that should require more than a quick reminder going forward.

Stop wasting our time. Motsebboh talk , 14 January UTC. Our Medical abortion article states:. There is little, if any, difference between medical and surgical abortion in terms of safety and efficacy. Thus, both methods are similar from a medical point of view and there are only very few situations where a recommendation for one or the other method for medical reasons can be given. Modern methods use medication or surgery for abortions.

To merely call medical abortion a "reasonable alternative" during the first trimester and then to further state it "may work" in the second, though with a higher risk of side effects, does not seem to match what I found when I did some further reading. Furthermore, as written the article seems to suggest that the rest of the world is wrong in its approach while the US has taken the route most beneficial for women, which I doubt.

I think we need to reword the lead. Gandydancer talk , 8 January UTC. Existing copy reads: Modern methods use medication or surgery for abortions. Suggest: The World Health Organization recommends safe and legal abortions be available to all women.

Birth control, such as the pill or intrauterine devices, can be started at once after an abortion. I would gladly use some other word than "effectiveness" but I can't come up with one that works as well. Gandydancer talk , 9 January UTC. OK, here is your suggestion: Modern methods use either medication or surgery for abortions. In terms of safety and effectiveness there is little difference between the medications mifepristone and prostaglandin and surgery in the first trimester.

While medical methods may work in the second trimester,[4] surgery has lower risk of side effects. I think that is good wording except for this: While medical methods may work in the second trimester,[4] surgery has lower risk of side effects. For this reason I feel that it is more accurate to say "surgery may have a lower risk of side effects. Even though I would prefer to just leave the reference to the second trimester out of the lead entirely.

This quote: "Using the same published safety data, countries have developed policies and practices that are almost opposite from each other, as demonstrated by the predominance of surgical methods in the United States and the predominance of labor induction abortion in many other countries. I hope this helps Gandydancer talk , 10 January UTC. This is an important issue for all women but perhaps especially important for women in countries with less well-developed medical systems such as Africa where skilled medical providers are not available, or in the U.

We need to get this right and we must not make statements in the Wikipedia voice that are not strongly backed with RS. After several days of discussion an agreement was reached which I implemented. It was reverted by Motsebboh with an edit summary of Reverted change that was not an improvement and not agreed to on the Talk page. You and Doc don't own the article. Actually the "Maybe neither" suggestion is from another topic, not this one.

I'm going to revert to the wording that was decided on in this section. I will use good faith and trust that Motsebboh does not want an edit war. Thanks CFCF. Gandydancer talk , 13 January UTC. The article states, "During the second trimester, surgery may have a lower risk of side effects.

The abstract from the first ref offered says only: Routine use of cervical preparation with osmotic dilators, mifepristone or misoprostol after 14 weeks gestation reduces complications; at early gestational ages, surgical abortions have very few complications.

Perhaps there is more in the article but this seems quite straight forward re safety. The second abstract says: Based on existing evidence, the Society of Family Planning recommends that, when labor induction abortion is performed in the second trimester, combined use of mifepristone and misoprostol is the ideal regimen to effect abortion quickly and completely.

In the third ref Cochrane compared different forms of medical methods but did not compare them to surgical methods. According to the WHO Frequently asked clinical questions about medical abortion , regarding factors that should be taken into account when counseling a woman about her choice between medical and surgical abortion: [1] There is little, if any, difference between medical and surgical abortion in terms of safety and efficacy.

I would like to remove the info that states that surgery has a lower risk of side effects. Gandydancer talk , 20 January UTC. It appears that things are getting overly complicated. It appears we are agreed on uterus as preferable or in one case, not less preferable to womb, yes? How do we stand on "survive on its own"?

I prefer "viable" which is the term linked. As had been noted, there are accuracy issues with "survive on its own", so even if you don't care for "viable", please brainstorm and try to suggest alternate verbiage. Just toss out ideas at this point, no need to get to committed to any specific phrasing.

Let's see what we can work out. CFCF You and I and most "normal" adults have the wherewithal to do the things, including intelligently seeking all kinds of help, to likely stay alive. Full term babies don't, though the new-born of many species do. That being said, I rather like your new formulation. Motsebboh talk , 21 January UTC. Sorry but I reverted. Feel free to overrule me but that wasn't an improvement.

The new wording has "the removal" without specifying wherefrom. It is possible to remove ectopic pregnancies but that is not an abortion. Also use of "the fetus" suggests there is a single fetus. Is it not possible to remove one of multiple fetus or just multiples at once? The Latin root always sounds more clinical, but the meaning is the same. The "Maternal and fetal health" subsection currently looks US-slanted, with two paragraphs dedicated solely to the US. I think we can either replace something there with info on other countries or trim some text.

Brandmeister talk , 27 January UTC. Currently the article lead says "Abortion rates changed little between and , [1] before which they decreased for at least two decades due to better access to family planning and birth control. I don't see where the source actually says this. Rather, I see places where the source hints at or suggests that greater access to modern contraceptives has or may eventually lead to lower abortion rates, or notes that it has "coincided" with declines in abortion rates in an area of the world, but nowhere do I see the source flatly saying that it caused an overall two decade long decline in abortions.

Motsebboh talk , 27 January UTC. In "The drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy" the words "safe and effective" imply that we take a stance on abortion, in contradiction to WP:IMPARTIAL.

I suggest replacing them with something neutral or rephrasing the sentence somehow. Brandmeister talk , 21 January UTC. This was added to the lead "Historically, abortion has been the subject of moral and legal debate, particularly from the latter decades of the 20th century when it was legalized in many countries. While we already had "In many places there is much debate over the moral, ethical, and legal issues of abortion.

Not sure we need to say it twice and therefore trimmed. I didn't see where WP:LEAD tells us that items in the lead must be presented in the same order as they are in the body but maybe it's there. That's why this comparatively basic procedure has such a huge article on it here in Wikipedia and why there are dozens of subsidiary articles on it. I hope this helps. Motsebboh talk , 31 January UTC. There are approximately six million unplanned pregnancies each year and about half of those pregnancies end in abortion.

Abortions are the most common of the medical procedures performed within the United States each year. According to emedicinehealth. Life begins at conception. Is NOT the same thing as late termination of pregnancy. Late term is simply after 17 weeks [16] to 20 weeks and before viability.

Guttmacher is already used as a source in Late termination of pregnancy but here 's a brand new article Feb 1, where it uses the term "postviability abortion" first page of source rather than "late termination of pregnancy". I guess it decided to pander to the ignorant.

The first sentence in the second paragraph of the lead: "When allowed by local law, abortion in the developed world is one of the safest procedures in medicine. For example, it seems implausible that having an abortion is safer than having your X-ray taken or taking an aspirin. So I would want to know what the word "procedure" is supposed to mean here. In the second citation it appears they are referring to surgical procedures. So I would have added the word "surgical" to the sentence, except that a this is not supported by the quote from the first citation "By contrast, legal abortion in industrialised nations has emerged as one of the safest procedures in contemporary medical practice, with minimum morbidity and a negligible risk of death.

The first citation doesn't seem to argue for its claim that abortion is one of the safest procedures it is about the safety of abortion but doesn't compare it to other medical procedures , so I don't get any clue from there.

If there is a commonly-accepted definition of "medical procedure" that it seems likely the first citation is using, then could someone edit to make that more clear? I don't have the expertise to assess that. Otherwise, it seems that the best choice might be to add the word "surgical" as mentioned above David talk , 30 January UTC. I have just added archive links to one external link on Abortion. Please take a moment to review my edit. I made the following changes:.

When you have finished reviewing my changes, please set the checked parameter below to true to let others know. Y An editor has reviewed this edit and fixed any errors that were found. There is a new Wikipedia article about Paper Abortion. Paper Abortion is about giving men the right to not refuse to become a father in the period of time, where women can have an abortion. It's not about giving men the right to force women to have an abortion or not. It is about giving men the right, as women have, to not become a parent.

The women's right to her own body is not touched. I think you maybe could link to it? Or tell me which article it should be linked from? This seems likely to be a misinterpretation on one of the two pages. Can anyone clear this up? Have moved this template [19] as IMO it is undue weight here.

Others thoughts? We should be using recent secondary sources per WP:RS. This statement is supported by multiple secondary sources "Countries with restrictive abortion laws have significantly higher rates of unsafe abortion and similar overall abortion rates compared to those where abortion is legal and available. Recently Doc James added this sentence to the end of the "Mental health" subsection of the article "Not having access to abortion is a reason for suicide among those who do not want to be pregnant.

Rather, it is a parenthetical; part of an explanation of the difficulties in quantifying maternal deaths. The authors say that deaths under these circumstances sometimes are, and sometimes are not, classified as maternal deaths. They never assert, much less demonstrate , that "not having access to abortion" is a significant cause of suicide. Thus I am removing the edit in question from the article. Doc James : Regarding your "This is consistent with other reports. You've presented no reliably sourced evidence that lack of access to legal abortion causes a notable number of suicides.

A "pro-life" advocate could just as easily claim that remorse following abortion was a cause of suicide. I have just modified 2 external links on Abortion. If you have any questions, or need the bot to ignore the links, or the page altogether, please visit this simple FaQ for additional information. As of February , "External links modified" talk page sections are no longer generated or monitored by InternetArchiveBot.

No special action is required regarding these talk page notices, other than regular verification using the archive tool instructions below. Editors have permission to delete these "External links modified" talk page sections if they want to de-clutter talk pages, but see the RfC before doing mass systematic removals. I found that the "mental health" category was not that informative.

Beccawhisenant talk , 20 March UTC. When you have finished reviewing my changes, you may follow the instructions on the template below to fix any issues with the URLs. HTM You should reference the Didache, a first-century teaching of Church which forbids abortion. For we Christians look upon him as a man, who is one in embryo; for he is in being, like the fruit in blossom, and in a little time would have been a perfect man, had nature met with no disturbance.

This is a better source [29]. John Wiley and Sons are a well respected publisher. Book was published in It specifically says "The Catholic church tacitly permitted earlier abortions, and it did not take a highly active role in antiabortion campaigns until the 19th century. Maybe IP user You would expect Wikipedia to articulate in as few words as possible, what the Catholic Church has stood for regarding abortion.

This is what it says: "In Christianity, Pope Sixtus V —90 was the first Pope to declare that abortion is homicide regardless of the stage of pregnancy;[] the Catholic Church had previously been divided on whether it believed that abortion was murder, and did not begin vigorously opposing abortion until the 19th century. Hi Wikipedia editors, the reference given where the article comments on "Pope Sixtus V" does not seem to relate to this person. I suggest either finding a reference that does or removing this sentence.

I have just modified 4 external links on Abortion. Hi there, I noticed that there was a video instead of an image at the top of the article this morning. The video has many words and lasts several minutes. For what it's worth, it seems to me that placing this video at the image without talk consensus was in error, especially considering that the video's placement was over a wiki-textual note saying not to replace the image with a new one without talk page consensus.

I hope this comment finds you, Wikipedia editors, well. Why is there a paragraph about anti-abortion violence, but none about pro-abortion violence? Regarding the handling of the definition of 'violence', it doesn't seem to be the subject of debate around the Berkeley protests whether it was violent, although I think that none of the things reported there are exactly within the four categories you mentioned. Even though nobody was reportedly hit or punched in Argentina , I think that if the Berkeley protests can be called violent, it should follow that the Argentina protests can as well because of the spray paint onto persons and rough handling of clothing.

Doubtlessly, the most important argument of the pro-choice side is that at the point of abortion, the fetus is insufficiently developed in order to constitute a life form. Note that I didn't mean to include this as a statement in the article, but merely to state that this is the opinion of the pro-choice side which it doubtlessly is. Triacylglyceride : Hence the re-inclusion.

Triacylglyceride talk , 21 August UTC. Hi Wikipedia editors, the article today implies that in the history of the Christian church, it had been unclear whether abortion is OK or not in Christian teaching for a long time until the nineteenth century.

It is true that punishment for abortion has not always been consistent, varying from murder to not murder, but this is not because the Church ever taught that abortion is OK. Chile now allows abortion in some cases, as of last month. Benjamin talk , 23 September UTC. Ilya hasn't responded.

I don't think the video adds anything substantial and would support removing it, at least until it is fixed. Sizeofint talk , 6 October UTC. Doesn anyone mind if I update ref 67 with a new version from WHO which can be found here? Here are some samples of what I would like to see as woman in singular possessive form spelled out in its plural possessive form. Misterbister talk , 24 October UTC.

Should we keep or remove this video that describes abortion? The video is more or less based on the lead of our article. The first sentence of this should say that the procedure kills the fetus. It's really confusing and misleading the way it's written, because it makes it sound like abortion is a way of inducing labor. Saying "before it can survive" does not make it any clearer because there are a lot of NATURAL reasons a fetus wouldn't be able to survive at the end of 9 or 10 months complications , but the reason here is because they are forcibly taken out.

I think they can re-word this and make it less confusing. It makes it sound like the fetus will still be alive afterwards. Hi, I noticed that this action Rescuing 1 sources and tagging 0 as dead. IABot v1. Is that link something that only institutional web users may access? If so, is that OK on Wikipedia?

Thanks, - Hi Wikipedia auto-confirmed editors and Talk: page collaborators, it seems to me that the eighth and ninth sentences of this article come awfully close to medical advice. Here they are excerpted:. The drug mifepristone in combination with prostaglandin appears to be as safe and effective as surgery during the first and second trimester of pregnancy.

The article is approximately 7, words, and before the reader has read words the reader has received medical information with the expressions appears to be as safe and as effective and can be used immediately. By providing immediately self-applicable sentences in the lead paragraph, Wikipedia runs into the risk of telling a person "birth control is OK" without finding out one of the other reasons why birth control might not be OK for them.

Also, only a person's doctor knows whether the drugs mentioned are as safe and effective as surgery for any given patient: this is not lead-paragraph content. Hi auto-confirmed editors and talk: page collaborators, I want to offer a beneficial re-write to the article's sixth sentence, which reads:. When allowed by law , abortion in the developed world is one of the safest procedures in medicine. Where allowed by law , early abortions in the developed world are among the safest procedures in medicine.

This change clarifies several things: first, that abortion is not a procedure it is the outcome of a range of procedures, each of which carries its own risk profile. Second, since later abortions are not among the safest procedures in medicine, it is good to add the word "early" to "abortions", distinguishing between procedures with different risk profiles.

Now, if it seems unnecessary to use "early" here because that's implied in "abortion", given that a "later abortion" is not "an abortion" but a "late termination of pregnancy", keep in mind that the reader by the sixth sentence does not have enough information to parse this distinction. The reader would have to know 1 when viability is, 2 that "late termination of pregnancy" is not regarded as "abortion" in spite of that usage in Roe v Wade , political discourse, and indeed, at Late termination of pregnancy ; and 3 that abortion is not one procedure but a range of procedures.

Furthermore, since viability varies by region according to development, Wikipedia risks being wrong on this point in places where viability is later. If this change wouldn't make Wikipedia better, please say how that is so. The exclusion at the lead paragraph of the notion that early abortion is safer than later abortion is a problem that should be corrected. Hi, the article implies that it had been unclear whether abortion is OK or not in Christian teaching until the nineteenth century.

It is true that punishment for abortion has varied from murder to not murder, but this is not because the Church taught that abortion is OK. The Catholic Church has always condemned the act of abortion but has specified more or less penance as punishment at different times.

I'm sorry, I really don't agree with your assessment of the implication of the sentences there about the Christian position on abortion. Can you quote the exact text from this ref that you feel supports that line of text? As early as the time of Tertullian in the third century, Christianity had absorbed the Pythagorean Greek view that the soul was infused at the moment of conception.

Though this view was confirmed by St. Gregory of Nyssa a century later, it would not be long before it would be rejected in favour of the Septuagintal notion that only a formed fetus possessed a human soul. While Augustine speculated whether "animation" might be present prior to formation, he determined that abortion could only be defined as homicide once formation had occurred.

Nevertheless, in common with all early Christian thought, Augustine condemned abortion from conception onward. Abortion was wrong to the early Christians, and this was what concerned them, not what penalty it deserved One finds in the early Church, then, simple, clear condemnations of abortion without any attempt to distinguish or classify.

So more like "Many early Christian leaders did not approve of abortion at any stage. Than followed by "Pope Sixtus V —90 was the first Pope to declare that abortion is homicide regardless of the stage of pregnancy;[] the Catholic Church had previously been divided on whether it believed that abortion was murder, and did not begin vigorously opposing abortion until the 19th century. The proposal is to add this line "Many early Christian leaders did not approve of abortion at any stage.

Let's call "do they approve of early abortion? It seems to me that the paragraph answers question A for pagans and Islamic tradition, but not for Christianity. Instead, the paragraph emphasizes areas in question B where Christianity is more ambiguous. By this selective exclusion and re-emphasis, I contend that the paragraph is misleading: sources are clear for Christianity on question A.

Additionally, it seems to me that question A is more important to answer than question B because as everybody knows, most abortions are early abortions. Early Christian leaders did not permit abortion at any stage in their community except as required to save a mother's life. Hi Wikipedia editors, I'm sorry that this is coming so long after the statement was added to this article, but it seems to me incorrect that abortion is one of the safest procedures in all of medicine according to a technicality: Medical procedures include "Propaedeutic" and diagnostic procedures which do not incur any risk whatsoever, like taking blood pressure and doing a urine test.

While it seems silly for somebody to think that abortion would be safer than looking into a kid's mouth with a tongue depressor, actually that's what Wikipedia is saying right now. And I am concerned that people will confuse the safety of one method with the safety of another I meditated on this phrase, "abortion is one of the safest procedures" and realized that this phrase in our language implies the expression, "abortion is one procedure" even though that is not written.

Again, you and I know that this is incorrect, and could be misleading enough to surprise somebody later who didn't realize, for instance, that around the time of viability nowadays the morbidity risk of having an abortion becomes equal, then worse, than the morbidity risk of carrying the pregnancy to term. Abortion is morally wrong. Ending a human life should not ever happen. That's why we have strict rules for murder. While the comment may be well-sourced, I think it would be best to evaluate whether it fits in the context of that paragraph.

I personally not speaking as a Catholic find that the sentence is a bit out of place without some introduction or analysis in the history paragraph, juxtaposed as it is with commentary about Catholic leadership. Is it relevant to abortion that we know whether people who identify with any particular religion actually follow church doctrine?

Hi Wikipedia auto-confirmed editors and talk: page collaborators, I would like to propose the following wording to appear whenever the article introduces the subject of abortion's safety My first correction does not change the meaning of the sentence. The second correction improves the sentence's accuracy with regards to both of its references, which do not make comparisons against procedures for men.

Thanks, Of course the abortion is NOT SAFE for the fetus — but in the places where we tell the reader about safety of the medical procedure for the pregnant woman, we're not going to cater to the anti-abortion platform with your suggested wording change. Binksternet talk , 6 November UTC. I have just modified one external link on Abortion. The historian of medicine John Riddle has spoken of the "broken chain of knowledge," [2] : — and historian of science Ann Hibner Koblitz has written, [3] : And sometimes their fumbling attempts to recover the knowledge can be disastrous.

For example, in one woman in Colorado died and another was seriously injured when they attempted to procure an abortion by taking pennyroyal oil. NightHeron : It seems to me like the new material you added is better suited for Abortifacient than for the main abortion article. With respect to "Modern scientific studies have confirmed that many botanical substances do in fact have abortifacient properties.

First ref is is not pubmed indexed [70] and is from Second ref is from 89 and is a small primary source in rats. Hi, I'd like to add the synonym 'termination of pregnancy' to the Infobox of the article. Since this article is so heavily debated I thought I'd discuss it here first.

I also think we should change the MedlinePlus code from to As is more the medical abortion which uses medication and is for early whereas I thought I could add to Late termination of pregnancy as it focuses more on the surgical abortion aspect. Because I'm an inexperienced editor and the issue of sources is so important on Wikipedia, I'd like to carry over some comments and questions about the sourcing of the abortion article that I sent to Doc James' user talk page, so as hopefully to get some responses from other editors as well:.

Thank you for sending me Wikipedia's "guidance for new healthcare editors. If you don't mind, I'd like to initiate a discussion of sources, since you have questioned the sourcing for my edits of the abortion and Margaret Sanger articles. I understand the need for very strict and high standards for medical sources described in the guidelines you sent me , because of the real harm that can come from outdated or poor sources if people consult Wikipedia for medical information similar to Wikipedia's policy on potentially libelous edits.

The standards in the non-sciences are not the same as in medicine. For example, sources need not be "recent" and journal articles don't have PMIDs. Also, sources are often published by less established publishers niche publishers, very small publishers, nonprofit organizations, small professional associations, etc. There's also some flexibility in using online non-print sources.

Sources should be judged on their own merits, sometimes on a case by case basis. I do not have any medical background, and my edits are generally non-medical except for the general assertion, which I didn't think was controversial and for which there are numerous sources, that some plants have been shown to have abortifacient properties. However, I have to question the statement in the form that you restored that "The use of herbs The reference is a very interesting one: "A descriptive retrospective survey was conducted on the calls received by the Montevideo Poison Centre between and concerning the ingestion of herbal infusions with abortive intent" from the abstract.

The study is consistent with my edit, which concerns the indiscriminant use of those plants -- in this case in a country Uruguay which in those years banned abortion. The statement about "not recommended by physicians" suggests that no physician would ever recommend herbal abortifacients. Is this true? Even if it is true in North America, is it true internationally?

In Cuba? In India? In China? Sorry I've gone on at length. I'd welcome hearing your views. Omission of this information causes several sections of the article to come across as misleading. For example, under the "History and religion" heading: " In fact, several historians have written[][][] that prior to the 19th century most Catholic authors did not regard termination of pregnancy before "quickening" or "ensoulment" as an abortion It is interesting that a search for the word "ultrasound" does not find any matches on the entire abortion page.

The "History of abortion" Main article currently reads: "There were a number of factors that contributed to this shift in opinion about abortion in the early 19th century. In the United States, where physicians were the leading advocates of abortion criminalization laws, advances in medical knowledge played a significant role in influencing anti-abortion opinion.

Science had discovered that conception inaugurated a more or less continuous process of development, which would produce a new human being if uninterrupted. Moreover, quickening was found to be neither more nor less crucial in the process of gestation than any other step. On a logical basis, many physicians concluded that if society considered it unjustifiable to terminate pregnancy after the fetus had quickened, and if quickening was a relatively unimportant step in the gestation process, then it was just as wrong to terminate a pregnancy before quickening as after quickening.

I would propose brief summary of this point to be: "A number of factors contributed to the shift in opinion about abortion in the early 19th century, including scientific discovery that conception initiated human development and that quickening was a realtively unimportant step in gestation. Mohr In the course of the first half of the 20th century physicians in many countries began to speak out in favor of decriminalizing abortion, if only in the interest of moving authority over abortion from the courts to the medical profession.

That sentence was not redundant and should not have been deleted. This part of the lede describes viewpoints pro and con on legalization. The pro-legalization viewpoint in many parts of the world such as Latin America is not based primarily on the "right to make decisions" argument but rather on public health arguments.

It would be misrepresenting the pro-legalization viewpoint and it would be inconsistent with WP:Global to summarize the pro-legalization viewpoint using only the previous sentence. Change Ireland's status on abortion to a sort of pending. Navajoin talk , 26 May UTC. This is not about how a medical abortion is preformed but about access and getting around laws against abortion. Medical abortions can done beyond 7 weeks depending on what agents one has.

And we already say with better refs that it can be used in the 1st and 2nd trimester. In the Societal section, Oster is used to cite the claim that sex-preference and compulsion are motives for abortion. The article primarily discusses imbalances in sex-ratios within certain nation. It does not discuss abortion at all; at most, it mentions infanticide in passing, ruling it out as a major imbalancing influence. This should be changed,"Abortion is the ending of pregnancy due to removing an embryo or fetus before it can survive outside the uterus.

In the Unites States abortion can be committed up until the day before birth. There was actually a "partial Birth Abortion", where they pulled the baby out but left the head in and snapped the spine to murder the baby. George Bush made this illegal.

If you insist on having this language in there, then it should say "In the USA babies can be aborted up until the last day of pregnancy". Everything I just said is common knowledge. But perhaps not for the world at large, in that case I can provide citations for anything. Hi all, I am a college student currently working on the article "Abortion in Venezuela. I would greatly appreciate input on how to make the article better.

Natsz72 talk , 4 October UTC. This does not appear largely different than abortion , it may in fact just be synonymous since one cannot occur without the other. For destruction of children which have been born, that would be infanticide, so this can only be pertinent to the period between conception and birth.

Ethanpet talk , 13 October UTC. Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal Agave sisalana chemical organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process.

Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp.

The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Pulp and paper production from Spruce wood with kraft and Mar 15, Scanning electron microscope SEM measurement of pulp. Fruit pulps can be cold stored for long periods of time, but they also can be used to fabricate juices, ice creams, sweets, jellies and yogurts. The exploitation of tropical fruits has leveraged the entire Brazilian fruit pulp sector due mainly to the high acceptance of their organoleptic properties and remarkable nutritional facts.

However, several works published in the last decades have pointed out unfavorable conditions regarding the consumption of tropical fruit pulps. This negative scenario has been associated with unsatisfactory physico-chemical and microbiological parameters of fruits pulps as outcomes of little knowledge and improper management within the fruit pulp industry.

There are protocols for delineating specific identity and quality standards IQSs and standardized good manufacturing practices GMP for fruit pulps , which also embrace standard operating procedures SOPs and hazard analysis and critical control points HACCP, although this latter is not considered mandatory by the Brazilian legislation. Unfortunately, the lack of skilled labor, along with failures in complying established protocols have impaired quality of fruit pulps.

It has been necessary to collect all information available with the aim to identify the most important hazards within fruit pulp processing lines. Standardizing methods and practices within the Brazilian fruit pulp industry would assurance high quality status to tropical fruit pulps and the commercial growth of this vegetal product towards international markets.

Potential biogas production from agricultural by- products in Sicily. A case study of citrus pulp and olive pomace. Full Text Available Renewable energy sources represent a suitable alternative to conventional fossil fuels, due to the possible advantages in terms of environmental impact reduction. Anaerobic digestion of biomasses could be considered an environmental friendly way to treat and revalorise large amounts of by- products from farming industries because it ensures both pollution control and energy recovery.

Therefore, the objective of this study was to define a methodology for evaluating the potential biogas production available from citrus pulp and olive pomace, which are suitable agricultural by- products for biogas production. In the first phase of the study, the spatial distribution of both olive and citrus-producing areas was analysed in Sicily, a geographical area of the Mediterranean basin highly representative of these types of cultivation.

Then, a GIS- based model, which had been previously defined and utilised to evaluate the amount of citrus pulp and olive pomace production , was applied to this case study. Based on the results obtained for the different provinces of Sicily, the province of Catania was chosen as the study area of this work since it showed the highest production of both citrus pulp and olive pomace.

Therefore, a further analysis regarded the quantification of olive pomace and citrus pulp at municipal level. Finally, the methodology adopted in this study made it possible to identify suitable areas for the development of new biogas plants by considering both the spatial distribution of the olive and citrus growing areas and the locations of the existing processing industries. Cocoa pulp in beer production : Applicability and fermentative process performance.

This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters.

The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale.

Sugar beet pulp , a byproduct of sugar beet processing, can be used as a feedstock in second-generation ethanol production. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pretreatment, of the dosage of cellulase and hemicellulase enzyme preparations used, and of aeration on the release of fermentable sugars and ethanol yield during simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF of sugar beet pulp-based worts. Enzymatic hydrolysis was conducted using Viscozyme and Ultraflo Max Novozymes enzyme preparations 0.

Two yeast strains were used for fermentation: Ethanol Red S. The results show that efficient simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of sugar beet pulp was achieved. Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to characterize chemically and morphologically elephant grass Pennisetum purpureum, and evaluate the potential of its fibers for production of printing and writing paper grade pulp. The elephant grass was chemically and morphologically characterized and cooked by the soda process to two different degrees of delignification kappa The lignin content The morphological analyses of the elephant grass indicated a short fiber material, similar to hardwoods.

The soda pulp from elephant grass cooked to kappa number The total active chlorine required by the The bleached soda pulps cooked to It was concluded that both Wheat Bread with Pumpkin Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product. Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown.

The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme ACE inhibitors.

ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The sensory chara Amphipathic lignin derivatives to accelerate simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of unbleached softwood pulp for bioethanol production. Amphipathic lignin derivatives A-LDs were already demonstrated to improve enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulose.

Based on this knowledge, two kinds of A-LDs prepared from black liquor of soda pulping of Japanese cedar were applied to a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation SSF process for unbleached soda pulp of Japanese cedar to produce bioethanol. Both lignin derivatives slightly accelerated yeast fermentation of glucose but not inhibited it. Integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood from young stands; Integroitujen tuotantomenetelmien vertailu.

The aim of the study was to clarify the competitiveness of different harvesting chains and processing methods of first thinning wood. Great expectations have been laid on integrated production of wood fuel and pulp wood. Results produced in other bioenergy projects were taken into account, and in this project some field experiments on mechanised felling-bunching and compressing of the load of tree sections during forwarding were carried out.

The new processing methods, the MASSAHAKE-method and chain-flail delimbing combined with small-scale drum debarking, still are under development giving a rather unstable data for comparisons. Both in pine and birch dominant stands modern multiple tree logging gave the most favourable results when ranking on the bases of the price of pulp chips.

Integrated methods were not very far and they have more potential than methods based on harvesting delimbed short wood. When compared on the bases of the production cost of pulp , integrated methods were in general the most favourable because they give good subsidies on the form of bioenergy.

Simultaneous production of bio-ethanol and bleached pulp from red algae. The red algae, Gelidium corneum, was used to produce bleached pulp for papermaking and ethanol. The solid remnants were bleached with chlorine dioxide and peroxide to make pulp. In the extraction process, sulfuric acid and sodium thiosulfate were added to increase the extract yield and to improve de-polymerization of the extracts, as well as to generate high-quality pulp.

These results suggest that it might be possible to utilize algae instead of trees and starch for pulp and ethanol production , respectively. This paper presents a preliminary study for the production of dissolving pulp from Trema orientalis Nalita. Water prehydrolysis kraft and soda-ethylenediamine EDA pulping for the production of dissolving pulp from T. But addition of 0. Eggshells — assisted hydrolysis of banana pulp for biogas production.

In this study, pretreatment of banana pulp using eggshells in both calcined and un-calcined forms to examine the Key words: Anaerobic digestion, banana pulp hydrolysis biogas, eggshells. Holdup time measurement by radioactive tracers in pulp production. A batch of pulp was to be labelled before passing two bleaching towers of a pulp plant.

Activated glass fibres were used as a tracer, which contained Na with a half-life of 15 hours. It was shown in laboratory tests, that the glass fibres were suitable for transport studies of wood pulp. For use in the tests the fibres were activated and suspended in water. Due to the small diameter of the fibres micrometers this suspension shows physical properties very similar to the pulp.

For detection six scintillation probes were mounted at different positions outside the bleaching tower. Radiation protection during the test was very easy due to the low total activity of the tracer material. Residence time distributions for both towers were measured. The successful tracer experiments show, that the method of labelling is suited for investigations of material transport in the pulp and paper industry.

Hydrogen production from carrot pulp by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana. Vrije, Truus de; Budde, Miriam A. Box 17, AA Wageningen Netherlands. Hydrogen was produced from carrot pulp hydrolysate, untreated carrot pulp and mixtures of glucose and fructose by the extreme thermophiles Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and Thermotoga neapolitana in pH-controlled bioreactors.

Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction in carrot pulp. The main sugars in the hydrolysate were glucose, fructose, and sucrose. In fermentations with glucose hydrogen yields and productivities were similar for both strains. With fructose the hydrogen yield of C. With T. The hydrogen yields of both thermophiles were 2. No growth was observed with T. Fermentation of pulp from coffee production ; Vergaerung von Pulpa aus der Kaffee-Produktion.

Harvesting of coffee berries and production of dried coffee beans produces large amounts of solid wastes. Per ton of consumable coffee beans, roughly 2 tons of spent coffee pulp are wasted at the production facilities. Coffee pulp represents a valuable source of energy and can be used for anaerobic biogas production.

In this study it was shown that coffee pulp can be anaerobically digested as a sole carbon source without further addition of co-substrates. No nutrient limitations and only a very moderate substrate inhibition have been found in concentrated pulp.

The mesophilic biogas formation potential was found to be 0. In semi-continuously operated biogas reactors a high degradation of organics and a subsequent biogas production was shown at hydraulic detention times of 16 days. Methanization of fresh pulp is technically feasible in fully mixed tank reactors as well as in plug flow reactors.

Due to the presence of easily degradable carbon sources, fresh pulp will quickly show microbiological growth. Storage in the presence of ambient oxygen will result in aerobic degradation of organics in parallel with energy loss.

Additionally, anaerobic zones with methane emission will quickly occur. Therefore, it is recommended to store fresh pulp under oxygen free, lactic acid conditions silage until anaerobic treatment in the biogas reactor. Environmental performance of straw- based pulp making: A life cycle perspective. Agricultural straw- based pulp making plays a vital role in pulp and paper industry, especially in forest deficient countries such as China. However, the environmental performance of straw- based pulp has scarcely been studied.

A life cycle assessment on wheat straw- based pulp making in China was conducted to fill of the gaps in comprehensive environmental assessments of agricultural straw- based pulp making. On average, the global warming potential GWP , GWP excluding biogenic carbon, acidification potential and eutrophication potential of wheat straw based pulp making are kg CO 2 -eq, kg CO 2 -eq, The dominant factors contributing to environmental impacts are coal consumption, electricity consumption, and chemical NaOH, ClO 2 input.

Chemical input decrease and energy recovery increase reduce the total environmental impacts dramatically. Compared with wood- based and recycled pulp making, wheat straw- based pulp making has higher environmental impacts, which are mainly due to higher energy and chemical requirements.

However, the environmental impacts of wheat straw- based pulp making are lower than hemp and flax based pulp making from previous studies. It is also noteworthy that biogenic carbon emission is significant in bio industries. If carbon sequestration is taken into account in pulp making industry, wheat straw- based pulp making is a net emitter rather than a net absorber of carbon dioxide.

Since wheat straw- based pulp making provides an alternative for agricultural residue management, its evaluation framework should be expanded to further reveal its environmental benefits. Raza, M. The consumption of fossil fuels is rapidly increasing and there is an urgent need to develop technologies for renewable fuel production not only as alternatives but also as additional fuels. Efficient polygeneration of transportation fuels with heat and electricity is one of the innovative technologies which have potential to replace fossil fuels and mitigate climate change.

Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether DME and methane CH4 as alternative fuels integrated with black liquor gasification have been studied and compared in this paper. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH4 production globally in terms of black liquor availability. Full Text Available The current global conditions provide the pulp mill new opportunities beyond the traditional production of cellulose.

Due to stricter environmental regulations, volatility of oil price, energy policies and also the global competitiveness, the challenges for the pulp industry are many. They range from replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources to the export of biofuels, chemicals and biomaterials through the implementation of biorefineries. In spite of the enhanced maturity of various bio and thermo-chemical conversion processes, the economic viability becomes an impediment when considering the effective implementation on an industrial scale.

In the case of kraft pulp mills, favorable conditions for biofuels production can be created due to the availability of wood residues and generation of black liquor. The objective of this article is to give an overview of the technologies related to the production of alternative biofuels in the kraft pulp mills and discuss their potential and prospects in the present and future scenario.

Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage. Lipid oxidation-induced quality problems can be minimized with the use of natural antioxidants. Overall, incorporation of tomato products and pink guava pulp improved the visual colour and odour scores of raw pork emulsion. These results indicated that tomato products and guava pulp can be utilized as sources of natural antioxidants in raw pork products to minimize lipid oxidation, off-odour development, and surface discolouration.

Full Text Available The objectives of the research were: to determine the economic impact of several minimum diameter and length of logs in economic rotation age, economic feasibility of Eucalyptus grandis plantation for cellulose production ; to determine the economic loss of cutting the stand before or after the optimal economic rotation age.

A biometric model for making wood volume prognosis was developed using data of a trial of Eucalyptus grandis plantation envisaging pulp production. Eucalyptus grandis stands of 19 and months old, in the spacing 3 x 2 and 3 x 3 m in site index of 30; 28; 26 and 24 m were used.

Theprognosis started at the age zero, considering logs of 2. Net Present Worth VPL was used the economic criterion, considering an infinite horizon and a cost relation including reestablishment, yearly maintenance, logging and wood transportation costs. The main conclusions were: increases in the minimum diameter and or in logs length increase the rotation age; harvesting the stands in ages different from the optimal one cause large economic loss mainly in the better sites; the economic loss is larger if the harvest is made before the optimal economic rotation than if it is make after; economic feasibility increases when the minimum diameter is smaller and when the length of the logs is shorter.

Any way, before making any decision it is necessary to take into account possible technical restrictions and effect on harvest and transportation costs caused by changer in the length of logs and in the size of the minimum commercial diameter. Comparison of pulp -mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified black liquor with stand-alone production from gasified biomass.

When gasified black liquor is used for hydrogen production , significant amounts of biomass must be imported. This paper compares two alternative options for producing hydrogen from biomass: A pulp -mill-integrated hydrogen production from gasified back liquor; and B stand-alone production of hydrogen from gasified biomass.

The comparison assumes that the same amount of biomass that is imported in Alternative A is supplied to a stand-alone hydrogen production plant and that the gasified black liquor in Alternative B is used in a black liquor gasification combined cycle BLGCC CHP unit. The comparison is based upon equal amounts of black liquor fed to the gasifier, and identical steam and power requirements for the pulp mill. The two systems are compared on the basis of total CO 2 emission consequences, based upon different assumptions for the reference energy system that reflect different societal CO 2 emissions reduction target levels.

Ambitions targets are expected to lead to a more CO 2 -lean reference energy system, in which case hydrogen production from gasified black liquor Alternative A is best from a CO 2 emissions' perspective, whereas with high CO 2 emissions associated with electricity production , hydrogen from gasified biomass and electricity from gasified black liquor Alternative B is preferable. Challenges of stem cell- based pulp and dentin regeneration: a clinical perspective. There are two types of approaches to regenerate tissues: cell- based and cell-free.

The former approach is to introduce exogenous cells into the host to regenerate tissues, and the latter is to use materials other than cells in an attempt to regenerate tissues. There has been a significant advancement in stem cell- based pulp and dentin regeneration research in the past few years. In contrast, the cell-free approach has not produced convincing evidence on pulp regeneration.

Without such consideration and definition, it is difficult to predict or anticipate the extent of cell-free pulp regeneration that would occur. Similarly, after a total loss of pulp , it is unlikely to regenerate without using exogenously introduced cells. A cell homing approach may provide a limited amount of tissue regeneration.

Recycling cellulase towards industrial application of enzyme treatment on hardwood kraft- based dissolving pulp. Cost-effectiveness is vital for enzymatic treatment of dissolving pulp towards industrial application. The strategy of cellulase recycling with fresh cellulase addition was demonstrated in this work to activate the dissolving pulp , i.

Results showed that Other pulp properties such as alpha-cellulose, alkaline solubility and molecular weight distribution were also determined. Additionally, a zero-release of recycling cellulase treatment was proposed to integrate into the dissolving pulp production process. Fermentable sugar in ammonium and calcium bisulfite pulping and ethanol production therefrom.

The yield of fermentable sugar is plotted vs the yield of pulp ; the curve shows a difference in sugar content for the two bases during the first part of the process. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone- based processes.

The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand COD and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes AOPs are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone- based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan.

The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only.

For the various ozone- based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone- based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone- based processes.

Bioconversion of sugar beet pulps and by- products. A new technology for biogas and energy supply by anaerobic digestion of wet vegetal substrats was studied. It was a two step anaerobic process, each resulting from numerous fermentative reactions.

Many technological problems were encountered with beet trash digestion. For the investigation of biodegradation behaviors, effect of the white rot fungi Coriolus versicolor on the neat PLA and composites with natural fibers during 30 and 60 days were studied. It is found that when the bagasse fibers were incorporated into composites matrix, percentage weight reduction and stiffness of samples have been increased. Also, the rate of loss mentioned of the composites made from bagasse pulp fibers were superior to the relevant raw bagase fibers.

This can be explained by the removal of non-cellulosic components such as lignin and hemicelluloses from the fibers by pulping process. Also, the results indicates the inferior of surface qualities of fabricated composites regarding to neat PLA.

Depending on the fiber type, different reductions of the surface qualities were attained. However, the degree of color change of the composites with any type of bagasse pulp fibers were lower compared with composite with raw bagasse fiber.

Finally, as compared with the raw bagasse fibers, bagasse pulp fibers have better reinforcing capability. Dehumidifier assisted drying of a model fruit pulp-based gel and sensory attributes. The moisture content, shrinkage SHR , and rheological parameters failure strain, failure stress FS , firmness, and energy for compression were determined as a function of drying time.

The composition of gel, particularly the agar content had a prominent effect on the characteristics of the dried gel. Detailed descriptive sensory analysis employing principle component analysis PCA biplot indicated two distinct groups of attributes; the first group comprised initial and final moisture contents, extent of moisture removal EMR , and shrinkage.

The fracture stress and energy formed the second group. The theoretically predicted extent of moisture removal at To provide a reasonable shelf-life of the developed intermediate moisture containing product , dehumidifier assisted drying is a pragmatic approach that affects sensory and rheological attributes of the dried fruit analogue.

Waste from pulp and paper mills consist of sugar-rich fractions comprising hemicellulose derivatives and cellulose by- products. A complete characterisation of the waste streams is necessary to study the possibilities of an existing mill. In this work, four chromatographic methods have been developed to obtain the most suitable chromatographic method conditions for measuring woody feedstocks, lignocellulosic hydrolysates and cellulose pulp in sulphite pulping processes.

The analysis of major and minor monosaccharides, aliphatic carboxylic acids and furfurals has been optimised. An important drawback of the spent liquors generated after sulphite pulping is their acidic nature, high viscosity and adhesive properties that interfere in the column lifetime. This work recommends both a CHOPb column for the sugar analysis and an SH resin- based cross-linked gel column to separate low-molecular-weight chain acids, alcohols and furfurals. Such columns resulted in a good separation with long lifetime, wide pH operating range and low fouling issues.

Immunostimulation and yellow head virus YHV disease resistance induced by a lignin- based pulping by- product in black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon Linn. Yellow head virus YHV is classified as one of the most serious pathogens causing a harmful disease in many penaeids, especially black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon , with high economic loss.

To determine a potent and practical prophylactic strategy for controlling this disease, the toxicity of the by- product kraft lignin and its ability to control severe YHV infection were investigated in juvenile black tiger shrimp Lignin was further added to shrimp diets via top-dressing to assess its ability to elicit immune stimulation activity. The antiviral activity of lignin against YHV in black tiger shrimp was notable in vitro because compared to control shrimp This information will facilitate the development of practical methods to control yellow head disease in the marine shrimp culture industry.

Scale up of ethanol production using pulp mill wastewater sludge by cellulase and saccharomyces cerevisiae. This study aimed to evaluate the potential use of pulp mill wastewater sludge as substrate in ethanol production.

The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process was conducted by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR under optimum proportion of cellulase and pulp mill wastewater sludge. The ethanol production from cellulosic materials in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation needs cooperation between cellulase and yeast.

The cellulase hydrolyzes cellulose to sugar while yeast utilizes sugar to produce ethanol. The pulp mill wastewater sludge has an average content of The experimental results indicated that the volume of the ethanol tend to increase with time, providing the maximum ethanol yield of 0. The ethanol production was scaled up in 5 L fermentor under optimum proportion and increased the fermentation period.

It was found that the ethanol production gave the maximum ethanol yield of 1. These results showed that the cellulose from pulp mill wastewater sludge was as effective substrate for ethanol production and alternative energy for the future. Proangiogenic prolyl hydroxylase PHD inhibitors represent a novel approach to stimulate tissue regeneration. Diabetes mellitus involves the accumulation of advanced glycation end products AGEs.

Vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF , interleukin IL -6, and IL-8 production was evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Furthermore, expression levels of odontoblast markers were assessed, and alizarin red staining was performed. Pulp tissue vitality and morphology were assessed by MTT assay and histology. Stimulation with L-MIM decreased alkaline phosphatase levels and matrix mineralization also in the presence of AGEs, whereas no significant changes in dentin matrix protein 1 and dentin sialophosphoprotein expression were observed.

The pulp tissue was vital, and no signs of apoptosis or necrosis were observed. Overall, in the presence of AGEs, L-MIM increases the proangiogenic capacity, but decreases alkaline phosphatase expression and matrix mineralization. Published by Elsevier Inc. Full Text Available Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. This study tested the suitability of ceramic tubular membrane technology as an alternative to conventional waste water treatment in the pulp and paper industry.

In this context, in series batch and semi-batch membrane processes comprising microfiltration, ultrafiltration and nanofiltration, ceramic membranes were developed to reduce the chemical oxygen demand COD and remove residual lignin from the effluent flow during sulfite pulp production. Pulp and paper waste water is one of the major sources of industrial water pollution. Many new products development with CNCs have been studied intensively.

However, little life-cycle analysis LCA has been conducted for the Mill demonstration of TMP production from forest thinnings: pulp quality, refining energy, and handsheet properties. Zhu; C. Dykstra; G. Holton Quinn; Louis L. High-value, large-volume utilization of forest thinning materials from U. This study demonstrated the utilization of wood chips produced from thinnings for the production of thermomechanical pulp TMP.

Both whole-log chips primarily from small-diameter logs, tops, and reject logs Effect of process parameters on the dryness of molded pulp products. Molded pulp products are made from cellulose fibers dispersed in water then formed, drained and dried. As in the conventional papermaking process, the most energ yintensive operation including time is drying. To gain a better understanding of the process parameters involved and to investigate Waste management from pulp and paper production in the European Union.

Wastes are very diverse in composition and consist of rejects, different types of sludges and ashes in mills having on-site incineration treatment. The production of pulp and paper from virgin pulp generates less waste but the waste has similar properties to waste from the production of deinked pulp , although with less inorganics.

Due to legislation and increased taxes, landfills are quickly being eliminated as a final destination for wastes in Europe, and incineration with energy recovery is becoming the main waste recovery method. Other options such as pyrolysis, gasification, land spreading, composting and reuse as building material are being applied, although research is still needed for optimization of the processes.

Due to the large volumes of waste generated, the high moisture content of the waste and the changing waste composition as a result of process conditions, recovery methods are usually expensive and their environmental impact is still uncertain.

For this reason, it is necessary to continue research on different applications of wastes, while taking into account the environmental and economic factors of these waste treatments. Thermophilic anaerobic fermentation of olive pulp for hydrogen and methane production : modelling of the anaerobic digestion process.

Both continuous and batch experiments The study was conducted to investigate the potential of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp as substrate for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger. Reducing sugar was estimated by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid and citric acid was estimated spectrophotometrically using pyridine-acetic anhydride methods.

The studies revealed that production parameters pH, inoculum size, substrate concentration, incubation temperature, and fermentation period had profound effect on the amount of citric acid produced Full Text Available With the sustained growth of dissolving pulp demand all over the world, the search for alternative bamboo materials has come into focus in China due to the shortage of wood and the abundance of bamboo resources.

In this study, to obtain updated information concerning green bamboo growing in southeastern China and to develop its processing technologies for dissolving pulp , the fiber morphology, chemical composition, elemental composition, degree of polymerization DP of cellulose, and crystallinity index CrI of cellulose were investigated. As a result, a de-knotting operation prior to cooking can contribute to the production of high-grade dissolving pulp.

The DP and CrI of cellulose from the node were much lower than that of cellulose from the culm and cortex. Moreover, green bamboo had the high content of ash, primarily distributed in the cortex. The concentration of Si was ppm in the cortex, nearly five times higher than that in the culm and node. Carrot pulp hydrolysate was obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. Indigenous and inoculated yeast fermentation of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens pulp for fruit wine production.

The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of gabiroba Campomanesia pubescens DC O. Berg in the production of a beverage fermented using selected and wild yeasts from indigenous fermentation, analyze the volatile compounds profile present during the process of fermentation, and evaluate the sensory quality of the final beverage produced. Throughout the process of fermentation, when Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CA was inoculated, there were stable viable populations around 9 log cells ml During indigenous fermentation, yeast population increased from 3.

The diversity and dynamics of the yeast population during indigenous fermentation observed by PFGE analysis showed five different karyotyping profiles in the first days of fermentation. After the seventh day, there was a higher frequency of a similar S. The yeast non-Saccharomyces were identified by sequencing of the ITS region as Candida quercitrusa and Issatchenkia terricola. Inoculated fermentations yielded a higher amount of alcohol than indigenous ones, indicating the efficiency of selected strains.

There was also a greater concentration of higher alcohols, which are usually responsible for the flavor found in alcoholic beverages. Based on the characteristics of the pulp and acceptance in the sensory analysis, gabiroba fruits showed good potential for use in the production of fermented beverage.

Mucopolysaccharidosis enzyme production by bone marrow and dental pulp derived human mesenchymal stem cells. Mucopolysaccharidoses MPS are inherited metabolic disorders that arise from a complete loss or a reduction in one of eleven specific lysosomal enzymes.

MPS children display pathology in multiple cell types leading to tissue and organ failure and early death. Mesenchymal stem cells MSCs give rise to many of the cell types affected in MPS, including those that are refractory to current treatment protocols such as hematopoietic stem cell HSC based therapy. Over-expression of four different lysosomal enzymes resulted in up to fold and up to fold greater levels in MSC cell layer and media respectively.

Transduction of MSCs did not affect the ability of the cells to differentiate down osteogenic, adipogenic or chondrogenic lineages, but did partially delay differentiation down the non-mesodermal neurogenic lineage. New alternative energy pathway for chemical pulp mills: From traditional fibers to methane production.

Chemical pulp mills have a need to diversify their end- product portfolio due to the current changing bio-economy. In this study, the methane potential of brown, oxygen delignified and bleached pulp were evaluated in order to assess the potential of converting traditional fibers; as well as microcrystalline cellulose and filtrates; to energy.

An energy and cost estimation showed that the energy produced can be translated into a significant profit and that methane production can be a promising new alternative option for chemical pulp mills. Potential of impulse drying technology for molded pulp products manufacture.

The vision of the Green Fiber Bottle GFB project is to develop a paper bottle for beer, which will be both recyclable and biodegradable. The early prototypes of the bottle are very promising but there are huge technical and scientific challenges ahead to mature the production technology The possibility of applying the concept of impulse drying during the drying stage is suggested. This would give benefits in terms of productivity and it would also reduce energy consumption.

With the aim of understanding and controlling the impulse drying phenomena, a simplified approach is proposed. Very rarely fruit pulp has been used in in vitro culture to produce secondary metabolites useful in promoting health. The aims of this work were the study of the best conditions to obtain the callus cultures from the pulp of two varieties of apples, Golden Delicious GD and "Mela Rosa Marchigiana" MRM , and the quali-quantitative analysis of secondary metabolites produced by the two in vitro callus cultures.

Callus was induced on both Murashige and Skoog and Gamborg B5 media containing various combinations of supplements. To achieve the maximum recovery of secondary metabolites produced, preliminary extraction tests were carried out on GD apple culture using two different organic solvents MeOH and EtOAc. In this last culture, however, the total amount of secondary metabolites was markedly higher. The in vivo production of these bioactive compounds were also quantified in the GD and MRM apple pulps.

Apple pulps produced higher amounts of triterpenic acids in vitro than in vivo. The present work can be considered a method to amplify the production of important secondary metabolites which exert beneficial effects on human health. Fractionation and characterization of saccharides and lignin components in wood prehydrolysis liquor from dissolving pulp production.

Saccharides and lignin components in prehydrolysis liquor PHL from kraft- based dissolving pulp production was characterized after being fractionated using membrane filtration. The results showed that the membrane filtration provided a method for organics fractionation with considerable recovery rate, but exhibited some disadvantages. Besides the limited ability in purifying oligosaccharides OS due to the overlaps of molecular weight distribution with lignin components, the membrane filtration could not improve the homogeneity of OS as indicated by the analysis of chemical compositions and the degree of polymerization DP , which may be ascribed to the linear conformation of OS.

The characterization of lignin components indicated a great potential for polymer industry because of the remarkable content of phenolic hydroxyl groups PhOH , especially for low molecular weight LMW fraction. It was concluded the organics in PHL provided streams of value-added chemicals. However, the practical significance thereof can be realized and maximized only when they are successfully and completely fractionated.

Enzymatic saccharification and fermentation of paper and pulp industry effluent for biohydrogen production. Paper and pulp industry effluent was enzymatically hydrolysed using crude cellulase enzyme 0. The influence of temperature and incubation time on enzyme production was studied. The optimum temperature for the growth of T.

The enzyme activity of 2. Relevant kinetic parameters with respect to sugars production were estimated using two fraction model. The enzymatic hydrolysate was used for the biohydrogen production using E. The growth data obtained for E. The maximum hydrogen yield of 2.

The colour and COD of effluent was also decreased significantly during the production of hydrogen. The results showed that the paper and pulp industry effluent can be used as a substrate for biohydrogen production. Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition.

The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase PG and pectin metyl esterase PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o Full Text Available Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis.

In the present work, we present an endodontic regeneration method based on the use of a tridimensional 3D hyaluronan scaffold and human dental pulp stem cells DPSCs to produce a functional dental pulp -like tissue in vitro. An enriched population of DPSCs was seeded onto hyaluronan- based non-woven meshes in the presence of differentiation factors to induce the commitment of stem cells to neuronal, glial, endothelial and osteogenic phenotypes.

In vitro experiments, among which were gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence IF staining, proved the commitment of DPSCs to the main components of dental pulp tissue. In particular, the hyaluronan-DPSCs construct showed a dental pulp -like morphology consisting of several specialized cells growing inside the hyaluronan fibers. Furthermore, these constructs were implanted into rat calvarial critical-size defects. Histological analyses and gene expression profiling performed on hyaluronan-DPSCs grafts showed the regeneration of osteodentin-like tissue.

Altogether, these data suggest the regenerative potential of the hyaluronan-DPSC engineered tissue. A hyaluronan- based scaffold for the in vitro construction of dental pulp -like tissue. Dental pulp tissue supports the vitality of the tooth, but it is particularly vulnerable to external insults, such as mechanical trauma, chemical irritation or microbial invasion, which can lead to tissue necrosis. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase.

Cassava Manihot esculenta Crantz pulp , produced in large amounts as a by- product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. To effectively utilize the cassava pulp , an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction C for 1 h , followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample.

Cynara cardunculus L. The pulping of Cynara cardunculus L. The best results in terms of delignification degree, expressed as kappa number, pulp viscosity and screened yield, were obtained for the kraft-AQ process with 0. The papermaking potential of the selected pulp was studied attending to biometric fibre characterisation, refining aptitude, optical and strength properties. All properties were compared against a Eucalyptus globulus pulp at different refining degrees.

The cardoon pulp was also evaluated concerning its potential to board manufacture, alone and in mixtures with pine pulp , giving rise to promising results for liner manufacture. Trichoderma Reesei single cell protein production from rice straw pulp in solid state fermentation. The dependency on fish meal as a major protein source for animal feed can lead toit priceinstability in line with the increasing in meat production and consumption in Indonesia.

In order todeal with this problem, an effort to produce an alternative protein sources production is needed. This scenario is possible due to the abundantavailability of agricultural residues such as rice straw whichcould be utilized as substrate for production of single cell proteins as an alternative proteinsource.

This work investigated the potential utilization of rice straw pulp and urea mixture as substrate for the production of local Trichoderma reesei single cell protein in solid state fermentation system. Some parameters have been analyzed to evaluate the effect of ratio of rice straw pulp to urea on mixed single cell protein biomass mixed SCP biomass composition, such as total crude protein analyzed by kjedhal method and lignin content TAPPI method.

Fractionation and cellulase treatment for enhancing the properties of kraft- based dissolving pulp. The aim of this study was to investigate a combined process involving pulp fractionation and cellulase treatment of each fraction for improving the molecular weight distribution MWD and reactivity of a kraft- based dissolving pulp. Three pulp fractions, namely long-fiber, mid-fiber and short-fiber fractions LF, MF and SF, respectively , were used as the substrates.

The results showed that the SF had the highest accessibility, lowest viscosity, and highest cellulase adsorption capacity, while the opposite was true for the LF. At a given viscosity, the combined process led to a lower polydispersity index 3. Nutritional composition of Annona crassiflora pulp and acceptability of bakery products prepared with its flour. Full Text Available Annona crassiflora offers an edible fruit native to the Savanna. This study aimed to develop a flour meal from Annona crassiflora pulp ; analyze the chemical composition of the fresh pulp and its flour; develop and verify the acceptance of formulations with different concentrations of the flour of Annona crassiflora pulp.

Fruit used were selected and processed. The results showed that the drying of Annona crassiflora pulp enriched its nutritional value. The Annona crassiflora pulp showed important chemical components, as insoluble fibers pulp and flour, minerals potassium, calcium, manganese and others and antioxidant compounds. The formulations were well-accepted in a sensory point of view and proved to be a good alternative to the exploitation of the fruit.

Biological fermentative hydrogen production from olive pulp at 35 degrees C. Koutrouli, E. In response to energy security and environmental concerns, there is renewed interest in the use of hydrogen gas as a renewable energy source. However, many processes for generating hydrogen are extremely energy intensive and costly. This study focused on biological production of hydrogen from wastewater or other biomass. Photosynthetic and fermentation processes were outlined, but the main focus of this paper was on continuous anaerobic fermentation of low cost substrates such as olive pulp at 35 degrees C.

This process is linked to the acidogenic stage of anaerobic digestion where carbohydrates are the preferred carbon source. Volatile fatty acids and alcohols are produced simultaneously with the hydrogen gas. An added advantage is that the effluent from the fermentation process can be further used by methanogenesis due to its rich organic acids content. Batch experiments with olive pulp resulted in 2.

It was noted that more research is required to maximize hydrogen production in a continuous process. It was suggested that hydrogen production could be optimized through hydrolysis of the non-soluble carbohydrates. This could be accomplished through physicochemical or biological pretreatments.

Mineral composition of pulp and production of the yellow passion fruit with organic and conventional fertilizers. The use of organic foods has been increased in the world. Organic fertilizers, like cattle manure, have emerged as an important component of the organic system production.

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Our favorite is Spela. Our most successful brand is Genesis Casino. As a new affiliate, this is extremely valuable, as their team will take very good care of you and provide you with the very best conditions for thriving with their brands. Getting this kind of help when you are new is invaluable. The conversion rate for their Casino Joy are amazing! The affiliate team is great and they always do their absolutely best.

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Their online and mobile casinos helped us earn more commission than any other casino partners. Besides, they always give us what we want, from exclusive deals to professional support and advise. Once again, great applause for them from our i-gaming community. They have several nice and converting brands that are easy to work with. The brands all have very good welcome offers compared to a lot of other casinos, and the gaming experience is great with lots of recurring bonuses and offers, good game providers and a wide variety of games.

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Genesis Affiliates is a key partner for us. Genesis Affiliates is a team of dedicated professionals who will always help you with quick response. Choose Genesis Affiliates as your partners and you will never regret! We are taking into consideration many factors such as website design, casino bonuses and free spins. On the other hand, working with Gemma is a great pleasure.

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As a result, working with Genesis Affiliates has been a breeze because its products are easy to market, and the offers and experiences are better than others. Our relationship has been a very prosperous one, and we will continue to be proud of our partnership with Genesis Affiliates, thanks to its reliable support and integrity.

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With flexible commission plans, fast payments, compliance with regulations, and regularly updated original promotional material, Genesis Affiliates is the rare case of an affiliate partner that can adapt to our business requirements and do most of the heavy lifting for us.

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Genesisaffiliate is a great group to work with for anyone looking for a fruitful and productive working relationship. The friendly and supportive affiliate team is a real pleasure to work with. We strongly recommend Genesis Affiliates program for every affiliate. They convert Finnish traffic very well, and we highly recommend working with their online casinos. Not only do the brands convert very well with our traffic on CasinoRunner. You can also be sure that your referred players get excellent service and treated fairly.

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We the top10casinoreviews. They are quick, professional and keen on delivering values for us as a partner. We are eager to see how far up the atmosphere our relationship can bring us! They offer many different games including the live casino.

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